84000 Glossary of Terms

Our trilingual glossary combining entries from all of our publications into one useful resource, giving translations and definitions of thousands of terms, people, places, and texts from the Buddhist canon.

ཀླུ། | Glossary of Terms

    ཀླུ།

    klu

    nāga

  • Term
Publications: 73

A semidivine class of beings who live in subterranean aquatic environments, where they guard wealth and esoteric teachings. Nāgas are associated with serpents and often assume a snakelike appearance. In Buddhist art and in written accounts, they are regularly portrayed as half human and half snake, and they are said to have the ability to change into human form. Some nāgas are Dharma protectors, but they can also bring retribution if they are disturbed. They may likewise fight one another, wage war, and destroy the lands of others by causing lightning, hail, and flooding.

They are one of the eight classes of nonhuman beings (sde brgyad po, *aṣṭasenā) said to have been present when the Buddha taught the Mahāyāna sūtras.

Translation by Fumi Yao
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

A semidivine class of beings who live in subterranean aquatic environments and who are known to hoard wealth and esoteric teachings. They are associated with snakes and serpents.

Translation by Gyurme Dorje
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

A class of serpentine water spirits and repositors of subaquatic and subterranean treasure.

Translation by Peter Alan Roberts
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

A semidivine class of beings who live in subterranean aquatic environments and who are known to hoard wealth and esoteric teachings. They are associated with snakes and serpents.

Translation by Peter Alan Roberts
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga
  • bhujaga

A semidivine class of beings who live in subterranean aquatic environments and who are known to hoard wealth and esoteric teachings. They are associated with snakes and serpents.

Translation by Zachary Beer
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

A semidivine class of beings who live in aquatic environments and who are known to hoard wealth. They are associated with snakes and serpents.

Translation by Oriane Lavolé
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

A semidivine class of beings who live in subterranean aquatic environments and who are known to hoard wealth and esoteric teachings. They are associated with snakes and serpents.

Translation by Benjamin Collet-Cassart
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga
Translation by Timothy Hinkle
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

A nonhuman class of beings who live in subterranean and/or aquatic environments and are known to hoard wealth and esoteric teachings. They are associated with snakes and serpents.

Translation by Benjamin Collet-Cassart · Nika Jovic
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga
  • 龍神

A semidivine class of beings who live in subterranean aquatic environments and who are known to hoard wealth and esoteric teachings. They are associated with snakes and serpents.

Translation by Klaus-Dieter Mathes · Julika Weber · Katrin Querl · Konstantin Brockhausen · Susanne Fleischmann · Daniel Gratzer · Georgi Krastev · Jamie Gordon Creek
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

A class of nonhuman beings who live in aquatic environments and who are said to hoard wealth and esoteric teachings. They are associated with snakes and serpents.

Translation by Tulku Sherdor · Virginia Blum
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

A semidivine class of beings who live in subterranean aquatic environments and who are known to hoard wealth and esoteric teachings. They are associated with snakes and serpents.

Translation by Jed Forman · ErdeneBaatar Erdene-Ochir · Michael Ium
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

A class of nonhuman beings who live in subterranean aquatic environments and who are known to hoard wealth and esoteric teachings. They are associated with snakes and serpents.

Translation by Catherine Dalton · Heidi Koppl · James Gentry · Cortland Dahl · Hilary Herdman · Andreas Doctor
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

A semidivine class of beings who live in subterranean aquatic environments and who are known to hoard wealth and esoteric teachings. They are associated with snakes and serpents.

Translation by Jens Erland Braarvig
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

A semidivine class of beings who live in subterranean aquatic environments and who are known to hoard wealth and esoteric teachings. They are associated with snakes and serpents.

Translation by Mattia Salvini
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

A semi-divine being similar to a large snake.

Translation by Dr. Thomas Doctor · James Gentry
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

A semidivine class of beings who live in subterranean aquatic environments and who are known to hoard wealth and esoteric teachings. They are associated with snakes and serpents.

Translation by Tulku Sherdor · Virginia Blum
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

A class of semidivine beings that inhabit bodies of water and act as guardians of treasure.

Translation by Gregory Forgues
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

Type of being in Buddhist cosmogony.

Translation by Peter Alan Roberts
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

In India, this was the cobra deity, which in Tibet was equated with water spirits and in China with dragons, neither country having cobras.

Translation by Benjamin Collet-Cassart
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

Semi-divine aquatic beings, often appearing in half-serpent, half-human form.

Translation by Peter Alan Roberts
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

In India, this was the cobra deity, which in Tibet was equated with water spirits and in China with dragons, neither country having cobras.

Translation by Gyurmé Avertin
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

A class of nonhuman beings who live in aquatic environments and who are known to hoard wealth and esoteric teachings. They are associated with snakes and serpents.

Translation by Peter Alan Roberts
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

In India, this was the cobra deity, which in Tibet was equated with water spirits and in China with dragons, neither country having cobras.

Translation by Timothy Hinkle
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

A semidivine class of beings who live in subterranean aquatic environments and are known to hoard wealth and esoteric teachings. They are associated with snakes and serpents.

Translation by Joseph McClellan
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

A semidivine class of beings who live in subterranean aquatic environments and who are known to hoard wealth and esoteric teachings. They are associated with snakes and serpents.

Translation by Wiesiek Mical · Timothy Hinkle
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

A class of nonhuman beings with bodies that are half snake and half human.

Translation by David Jackson
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

A semidivine class of beings who live in subterranean aquatic environments where they are known to guard wealth and esoteric teachings. Nāgas are associated with serpents and often assume a snakelike appearance. In Buddhist art and in written accounts, nāgas are regularly portrayed as being half human and half snake, and, as mentioned in this sūtra, said to have the ability to change into human form. Some nāgas are Dharma protectors, but they can also bring retribution if they are disturbed. Nāgas likewise fight one another, wage war, and destroy the lands of others by causing lightning, hail, and flooding.

Translation by Dr. Andreas Doctor
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

A semidivine class of beings who live in subterranean aquatic environments and who are known to hoard wealth and esoteric teachings. They are associated with snakes and serpents.

Translation by Dr. Anne Burchardi · Tulku Dakpa Rinpoche · Dr. Ulrich Pagel
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

A semidivine class of beings who live in subterranean aquatic environments and who are known to hoard wealth and esoteric teachings. They are associated with snakes and serpents.

Translation by Timothy Hinkle · Ryan Damron · Dr. Andreas Doctor
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

A class of nonhuman beings who live in subterranean aquatic environments and who are known to hoard wealth and esoteric teachings. Nāgas are associated with snakes and serpents, and often assume a snakelike appearance.

Translation by Timothy Hinkle
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

A semidivine class of beings who live in subterranean aquatic environments and who are known to hoard wealth and esoteric teachings. They are associated with snakes and serpents.

Translation by Timothy Hinkle
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

A semidivine class of beings who live in subterranean aquatic environments where they are known to guard wealth and esoteric teachings. Nāgas are associated with serpents and often assume a snakelike appearance. In Buddhist art and in written accounts, nāgas are regularly portrayed as being half human and half snake, and, as mentioned in this sūtra, said to have the ability to change into human form. Some nāgas are Dharma protectors, but they can also bring retribution if they are disturbed. Nāgas likewise fight one another, wage war, and destroy the lands of others by causing lightning, hail, and flooding.

Translation by Benjamin Ewing
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

A semidivine class of beings who live in subterranean aquatic environments where they are known to guard wealth and esoteric teachings. Nāgas are associated with serpents and often assume a snakelike appearance. In Buddhist art and in written accounts, nāgas are regularly portrayed as being half human and half snake, and, as mentioned in this sūtra, said to have the ability to change into human form. Some nāgas are Dharma protectors, but they can also bring retribution if they are disturbed. Nāgas likewise fight one another, wage war, and destroy the lands of others by causing lightning, hail, and flooding.

Translation by Benjamin Collet-Cassart
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

A semidivine class of beings who live in subterranean aquatic environments and who are known to hoard wealth and esoteric teachings. They are associated with snakes and serpents.

Translation by Gyurmé Avertin
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

A semidivine class of beings who live in subterranean aquatic environments and are said to hoard wealth and esoteric teachings. They are associated with snakes and serpents, and are subordinate to Virūpākṣa, the Great King of the West.

Translation by Tenpa Tsering
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

A semidivine class of beings who live in aquatic environments and who are known to hoard wealth. They are associated with snakes and serpents.

Translation by Ani Jinpa Palmo
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

A semidivine class of beings that live in subterranean aquatic environments and that are known to hoard wealth and esoteric teachings. They are associated with snakes and serpents.

Translation by Venerable Jampa Losal · YangDol Tsatultsang
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

Nāgas are associated with springs, streams, rivers, and water in general, and among their many magical powers are the ability to produce rain.

Translation by Celso Wilkinson · Laura Goetz · L.S. Summer
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

A mythical being usually depicted as having the top half of a human and the bottom half of a snake. However, the nāga has a myriad of associations within Buddhism and Indian traditions in general; the term may be associated with deities, snakes (more specifically cobras), elephants, subterranean spirits, water spirits, or ethnic groups of people from the Indian subcontinent. In Tibet they became specifically associated with water spirits (klu), and in China they came to be associated with dragons. Here the image of the nāga is the twenty-seventh of the eighty designs on the palms and soles of the Tathāgata.

Translation by Timothy Hinkle
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

A semidivine class of beings who live in subterranean acquatic environments and who are known to hoard wealth and esoteric teachings. They are associated with snakes and serpents.

Translation by Jens Braarvig
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

A semidivine class of beings who live in subterranean aquatic environments and who are known to hoard wealth and esoteric teachings. They are associated with snakes and serpents.

Translation by Robert A. F. Thurman
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

One of the lords of the ocean, appearing as a great, many headed, sea dragon.

Translation by Timothy Hinkle
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

A semidivine class of beings who live in subterranean aquatic environments and who are known to hoard wealth and esoteric teachings. They are associated with snakes and serpents.

Translation by Andreas Doctor · Zachary Beer
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

A semidivine class of beings who live in subterranean aquatic environments and who are known to hoard wealth and esoteric teachings. They are associated with snakes and serpents.

Translation by Dr. Karen Liljenberg · Dr. Ulrich Pagel
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

A semidivine class of beings who live in subterranean aquatic environments and who are known to hoard wealth and esoteric teachings. They are associated with snakes and serpents.

Translation by Jamyang Choesang · Kunsang Choepel · Boyce Teoh · Solvej Nielsen
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

Nāgas are serpent-like animals who live (invisibly) in the human realm and have an ambivalent status, on occasion positive but also frequently harmful.

Translation by Benjamin Collet-Cassart · Nika Jovic
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

A semidivine class of beings who live in subterranean aquatic environments and who are said to hoard wealth and esoteric teachings. They are associated with snakes and serpents.

Translation by Lowell Cook
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

A type of serpentine spirit, often associated with underground or aquatic environments.

Translation by Zachary Beer
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

A class of nonhuman beings who live in subterranean acquatic environments and who are known to hoard wealth and esoteric teachings. They are associated with snakes and serpents.

Translation by Karen Liljenberg · Ulrich Pagel
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

A class of nonhuman beings who live in subterranean aquatic environments and who are said to hoard wealth and esoteric teachings. They are associated with snakes and serpents.

Translation by Jed Forman · ErdeneBaatar Erdene-Ochir · Michael Ium
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

A class of semidivine beings who live in aquatic environments and who are known to hoard wealth. They are associated with snakes and serpents. 

Translation by Timothy Hinkle · Anna Zilman · Lama Tenzin Sangpo
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

A semidivine class of beings who live in subterranean aquatic environments and who are known to hoard wealth and esoteric teachings. They are associated with snakes and serpents.

Translation by Adam Krug
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

A semidivine class of beings that live in subterranean aquatic environments and that are known to hoard wealth and esoteric teachings. They are associated with snakes and serpents.

Translation by Jampa Tenzin · Ngawang Tenzin · Christian Bernert · Julia C. Stenzel
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga
Translation by Ana Cristina Lopes
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

A semidivine class of beings who live in subterranean aquatic environments and who are known to hoard wealth and esoteric teachings. They are associated with snakes and serpents.

Translation by Annie Bien
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

A semidivine class of beings who live in subterranean aquatic environments and are known to hoard wealth and esoteric teachings. They are associated with snakes and serpents.

Translation by Laura Dainty
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

A semidivine class of beings who live in subterranean aquatic environments and who are known to hoard wealth and esoteric teachings. They are associated with snakes and serpents.

Translation by Rolf Scheuermann · Casey Kemp
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

Snake-like mystical creature with supernatural powers belonging to the animal realm.

Translation by Dr. Thomas Doctor · Timothy Hinkle · Benjamin Collet-Cassart
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

A serpentine class of beings associated with intelligence and wealth.

Translation by Annie Bien
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

A semidivine class of beings who live in subterranean and aquatic environments and who are known to hoard wealth and esoteric teachings. They are associated with snakes and serpents.

Translation by Celso Wilkinson · Laura Goetz
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

A supernatural being usually depicted as having the top half of a human and the bottom half of a snake. However, the nāga has a myriad of associations within Buddhism and Indian traditions in general; the term may be associated with deities, snakes (more specifically cobras), elephants, subterranean spirits, water spirits, or ethnic groups of people from the Indian subcontinent. In Tibet they became specifically associated with water spirits (klu), and in China they came to be associated with dragons ().

Translation by Sonam Tsering Ngulphu · Norzin Dolma
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

A semidivine class of beings who live in subterranean aquatic environments where they are known to guard wealth and esoteric teachings. Nāgas are associated with serpents and often assume a snakelike appearance. In Buddhist art and in written accounts, nāgas are regularly portrayed as being half human and half snake, and, as mentioned in this sūtra, said to have the ability to change into human form. Some nāgas are Dharma protectors, but they can also bring retribution if they are disturbed. Nāgas likewise fight one another, wage war, and destroy the lands of others by causing lighting, hail, and flooding.

Translation by Ruth Gamble · Tenzin Ringpapontsang
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

A semidivine class of beings who live in subterranean aquatic environments where they are known to guard wealth and esoteric teachings. Nāgas are associated with serpents and often assume a snakelike appearance. In Buddhist art and in written accounts, nāgas are regularly portrayed as being half human and half snake, and are said to have the ability to change into human form. Some nāgas are Dharma protectors, but they can also bring retribution if they are disturbed.

Translation by Laura Dainty
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

A nonhuman class of beings who live in subterranean aquatic environments and who are known to hoard wealth and esoteric teachings. They are associated with snakes and serpents.

Tantra Text Warning

Warning: Readers are reminded that according to Vajrayāna Buddhist tradition there are restrictions and commitments concerning tantra. Practitioners who are not sure if they should read this translation are advised to consult the authorities of their lineage. The responsibility for reading this text or sharing it with others who may or may not fulfill the requirements lies in the hands of readers.

Translation by Wiesiek Mical
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

A class of semi-divine beings with bodies that are half human, half snake.

Tantra Text Warning

Warning: Readers are reminded that according to Vajrayāna Buddhist tradition there are restrictions and commitments concerning tantra. Practitioners who are not sure if they should read this translation are advised to consult the authorities of their lineage. The responsibility for reading this text or sharing it with others who may or may not fulfill the requirements lies in the hands of readers.

Translation by Wiesiek Mical
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

A class of nonhuman beings, half-human and half-snake.

Translation by Adam Krug
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

Serpentine beings typically associated with waterways, springs, and the rains.

Translation by Adam Krug
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

A class of terrestrial beings.

Translation by Wiesiek Mical
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

A class of semidivine beings that are half serpent, half human.

Tantra Text Warning

Warning: Readers are reminded that according to Vajrayāna Buddhist tradition there are restrictions and commitments concerning tantra. Practitioners who are not sure if they should read this translation are advised to consult the authorities of their lineage. The responsibility for reading this text or sharing it with others who may or may not fulfill the requirements lies in the hands of readers.

Translation by Wiesiek Mical
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

Class of semi-divine serpent-like beings.

Translation by James Gentry
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga
Tantra Text Warning

Warning: Readers are reminded that according to Vajrayāna Buddhist tradition there are restrictions and commitments concerning tantra. Practitioners who are not sure if they should read this translation are advised to consult the authorities of their lineage. The responsibility for reading this text or sharing it with others who may or may not fulfill the requirements lies in the hands of readers.

Translation by Wiesiek Mical · Anna Zilman · Andreas Doctor
  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • ནཱ་ག
  • klu
  • nA ga
  • nāga

A class of snake-like beings.

  • Nāga
  • ཀླུ།
  • klu
  • nāga

A class on nonhuman beings, half-snake and half-human.