The Exposition of Karma
Degé Kangyur, vol. 72 (mdo sde, sa), folios 277.a–298.b
Translated by Bruno Galasek-Hul with Lama Kunga Thartse Rinpoche
under the patronage and supervision of 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha
In The Exposition of Karma, the Buddha presents to the brahmin youth Śuka Taudeyaputra a discourse on the workings of karma. This is enlivened by many examples drawn from the rich heritage of Buddhist narrative literature, providing a detailed analysis of how deeds lead to specific consequences in the future. For the Buddhist, this treatise answers many questions pertaining to moral causation, examining specific life situations and their underlying karmic causes and emphasizing the key role that intention plays in the Buddhist ethic of responsibility.
This sūtra was translated into English from the Tibetan and the Sanskrit by Bruno Galasek-Hul with Lama Kunga Thartse Rinpoche (Evam Choden Buddhist Center, Kensington, Berkeley, California) as the consulting Lama.
The translation was completed under the patronage and supervision of 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha.
We gratefully acknowledge the generous sponsorship of Late Ng Ah Chon, Late Lee Tiang Chuan, Lee Cheng Watt and family, Late Lee Cheng Boon and family, Lee Boon Tee and family, Lee Pheck Tiang and family, Lee Pheck Choo and family, Lee Siang Choo and family. Their support has helped make the work on this translation possible.
The Exposition of Karma (Karmavibhaṅga) opens in Prince Jeta’s grove, where the Buddha announces to the brahmin youth Śuka Taudeyaputra1 that he will deliver this exposition on karma. The ensuing teaching provides a detailed analysis of the complex workings of karma. This is enlivened by many examples drawn from the rich store of Buddhist narrative literature, especially the Buddha’s past-life stories. It begins with a section in which the Buddha poses and answers a series of questions about how conspicuous differences in life circumstances such as longevity, happiness, illness, and appearance have been determined by past deeds. A second section follows, in which questions relating to specific causes for rebirth in various worlds are answered. A third section contains a series of miscellaneous questions and answers that examine the specific outcomes of deeds when certain factors are either present or absent in their performance. Two final sections focus more broadly on virtuous and nonvirtuous deeds and their respective positive and negative consequences. In each of these contexts, the relationship between actions and their results is illustrated by examples and morality tales from Buddhist narrative literature.
The central theme of the Karmavibhaṅga is the concept of cause and effect, the complex system of positive and negative results that, in Indian religious thought, are attributed to karma (“action”) itself. In the Buddhist context, the term karma designates both morally good (kuśala) and bad (akuśala) actions of body, speech, and mind. Once committed, all such deeds “ripen” (vipāka) into their corresponding pleasant and unpleasant (or neutral) results, called “karmic fruition” (karma-phala).2 From this standpoint, the entire universe and everything in it is the result of individuals’ actions.3 According to the Karmavibhaṅga, certain unpleasant features of one’s environment are the direct outcome of the ten nonvirtuous courses of action.4 The botanical or agricultural metaphor employed in the Buddhist description of the karmic process of the individual is perhaps noteworthy: through the ripening of karma one reaps or harvests the fruits of one’s actions. Although the historical Buddha was not the first teacher in ancient India to teach the concept of karmic cause and effect, it has been argued that he advanced and redefined the existing notions of karmically relevant actions as consisting primarily in mental intention (Skt. cetanā; Tib. sems pa).5 This is summarized in the frequently cited passage from the Aṅguttara Nikāya of the Pāli canon: “By action I mean intention, monks. Having formed a (moral) intention, one carries out an action with body, speech, or mind.”6
The Karmavibhaṅga is rich in references to sūtras and citations from Buddhist literature. Its longest illustrative story is a version of the popular narrative from the Maitrakanyakāvadāna (Divyāvadāna no. 38) of the voyage of the sea merchant’s son Maitrakanyaka (called Maitrāyajña in the Karmavibhaṅga), who undertakes a sea voyage to make his fortune, disregarding his mother’s pleas for him to remain on shore and instead physically mistreating her. Because of his disobedience and abuse, he is shipwrecked on the shores of a foreign country and ends up suffering the torments of his personal hell. Another popular story is that of the sthavira Mahāmaudgalyāyana, who is refused alms by a family and subsequently reveals to a stranger their karmic relationship. Both stories are widely known among Tibetan Buddhists from orally transmitted anecdotes of Tibetan lamas. However, many of the other stories and text titles referenced in the Karmavibhaṅga are either completely unknown to us or differ from their better-known versions and other extant texts that bear identical or similar titles.7
Lokesh Chandra, writing about the Javanese Buddhist monument the Borobudur, notes the wide-ranging influence of the Karmavibhaṅga: “It was a popular text from the island of Java to the sands of Central Asia and as far as the sprawling land of China, that is, wherever the doctrine of Buddha held sway.”
A further measure of the work’s widespread popularity is the diverse range of languages in which we find extant versions or fragments of the work: Sanskrit, Pāli, Khotanese, Kuchean, Sogdian, and Chinese.8 Indeed, it was translated into Chinese five times over eight centuries. Thus, in a variety of cultural contexts, the work served as an important source for the central Buddhist doctrine that humans are responsible for the consequences of their actions.9
The design of the Borobudur on the island of Java in Indonesia is thought to include pictorial representations drawn from the Karmavibhaṅga.10 According to Lokesh Chandra, the monument is a physical model of the Buddhist path to awakening in terms of the four sambhāras or accumulations of merit (puṇya), wisdom (jñāna), tranquility (śamatha), and special insight (vidarśanā) according to the Lalitavistara,11 while skillfully integrating and harmonizing other textual traditions. The lowest or most basic level of religious merit (puṇya), which must be accomplished before one can ascend to the higher levels of the path, is represented by Borobudur’s so-called hidden base, which features reliefs depicting stories from the Karmavibhaṅga that illustrate the law of karma.
The exact original title of Toh 338 cannot be established beyond a doubt. Sylvain Lévi, the first to edit and translate the text, referred to it as the Mahākarmavibhaṅga (MKV).12 However, the adjective mahā- (“great”) only occurs in the title given to one of the two surviving nearly complete manuscripts (called MS[A] by Kudo Noriyuki),13 and only in an appendix to the text.14 The second of the two nearly complete manuscripts (called MS[B] in Kudo’s edition) bears the title Karmavibhaṅgasūtraṃ.15 There are similar variants in the Tibetan translations of the text preserved in the different Kangyur collections.16
For the sake of simplicity, we here follow Kudo and use the title Karmavibhaṅga instead of Mahākarmavibhaṅga or Karmavibhaṅgasūtra to refer to the text translated here (Toh 338), with the caveat that different versions of this text with either the same or a different title are extant.17 The Karmavibhaṅga belongs to a group of texts which has been labeled the Karmavibhaṅga- or Śukasūtra class.18
Although one manuscript (MS[B]) contains the word sūtra in its title, there is insufficient evidence from the extant Sanskrit manuscripts to determine whether the Karmavibhaṅga actually belonged to the scriptural category of sūtra or not.19 As indicated by the example of the Cakravartisūtra—a text the Karmavibhaṅga quotes four times—texts that were designated as sūtras may nevertheless have belonged to the Abhidharma Piṭaka of one of the early Buddhist schools.20 Indeed, from the point of view of style, the actual “sūtra-portion” of the Sanskrit version as edited by Lévi seemingly ends after presenting a mere list of eighty karmic categories.21 Subsequently, something more akin to a commentary on those categories is inserted, bracketed by the list and the title (Karmavibhaṅgasūtraṃ samāptam; given in the colophon of MS[B]) that formally marks the end of the text. But there is no “classical” sūtra ending such as a statement that the assembled audience was delighted and rejoiced in the Blessed One’s words.22 Indeed, the Karmavibhaṅga’s diction is rather characteristic of a treatise or commentary (Sanskrit śāstra): the different actions and their karmic results are presented in the form of a (hypothetical) dialogue in which replies are given to questions about the expected outcomes of specific types of action. This seamless inclusion of what reads like a commentary as well as the diction of the sūtra, which appears to be more in line with a commentarial treatise, is unusual for the sūtra genre. Equally unusual is the absence of a formulaic, sūtra-typical closure in the Sanskrit version of both MS[A] and MS[B].23
The Tibetan tradition on the other hand regarded the Karmavibhaṅga as belonging to the sūtra category (mdo sde), and the Tibetan version possesses the characteristic sūtra frame. All the editions of the Tibetan Kangyur available through the website Resources for Kanjur and Tanjur Studies classify it under the sūtra category.24 The Degé Kangyur contains the Karmavibhaṅga in a subsection called Collection of Sūtras Belonging to the Hīnayāna (theg dman gyi mdo mang), in the vicinity of such celebrated Buddhist classics as the Udānavarga and the Karmaśataka.25
A good deal of excellent scholarly work has been done on the Karmavibhaṅga and its related texts. In what follows we collate and summarize some general information about the extant versions of the Karmavibhaṅga and the existing scholarship.
The Sanskrit text of the Karmavibhaṅga was first edited and published together with a French translation by Sylvain Lévi (1932). Lévi used handwritten copies of the original manuscripts. His edition and translation of the text remains the most comprehensive study, bringing together in one place most of the extant versions and fragments of this important text. Kudo Noriyuki (2004) has published a transliteration of the original manuscripts together with extensive annotations on the quotations of the Karmavibhaṅga.
As is the case with so many sūtras, we have little concrete information about the origin, the circumstances, or the age of the text of the Karmavibhaṅga.26 Perhaps one of the oldest canonical versions of a more detailed discussion of the Buddhist formulation of the doctrine of karmic cause and effect—if one accepts that parts of the Pāli canon are among the oldest representatives of Indian Buddhism, that is—can be found in two texts (Pāli sutta) of the Majjhima Nikāya of the Pāli canon: the Cūḷakammavibhaṅgasutta (MN 135) and the Mahākammavibhaṅgasutta (MN 136).27 The phraseology and the “cast of characters” of the Cūḷakammavibhaṅgasutta, which contains altogether fourteen karmic categories that partly overlap with those of the Karmavibhaṅga, bear some resemblance to the Karmavibhaṅga. The Pāli version of the brahmin youth’s name, Śuka, is Subha.28
According to Lokesh Chandra, the Karmavibhaṅga was popular in China. Different recensions of the text were translated into Chinese altogether six times—some of them probably from versions transmitted via Central Asia, where the text was equally well known. The earliest translation dates to the third century ᴄᴇ.29 All the different translations bearing various related titles, and possibly representing different recensions of the text, have been collectively called the Śukasūtra-class after Śuka Taudeyaputra,30 the protagonist of the frame story. The Chinese translations, in the order of their dates of translation, are as follows:
Taishō 78: Doutiao jing 兜調經 (*Taudeyasūtra?), the earliest translation, was prepared under the Western Jin, 265–316 ᴄᴇ. The name of the translator is unknown (Lévi: Cha).
Taishō 26: Yingwu jing 鸚鵡經 (Śukasūtra), the 170th sūtra of the Madhyamāgama, was translated 397–98 ᴄᴇ by Saṅghadeva (Lévi: Chs).
We can infer from the large number of surviving fragments of versions of the Karmavibhaṅgasūtra from the Buddhist centers of the Central Asian oasis towns along the ancient Silk Road that this text and its cognate versions must also have been very popular among Central Asian Buddhists. We know of an old Khotanese version,33 a Central Asian fragment in Sanskrit,34 several fragments of a Kuchean version,35 and a Sogdian version.36
Apart from the Sanskrit and the Central Asian recensions of the Karmavibhaṅga, three different Tibetan versions are preserved in different Kangyurs. While the Kangyurs of the Tshalpa (tshal pa) line mainly contain the versions of the text as preserved in Toh 338 and Toh 339, the Kangyurs belonging to the Thempangma (them spangs ma) line contain the Toh 339 version and, instead of the Toh 338 version, another version of the text. The mixed-lineage Lhasa Kangyur includes all three.37
A text bearing the title las rnam par ’byed pa zhes bya ba (Karmavibhaṅganāma) in the Tengyur (Toh 3959) is an independent work attributed to the authorship of Atiśa Dīpaṅkaraśrījñāna (982–1054) and has no direct or explicit relation to the Karmavibhaṅga or the Tibetan versions. Apart from the Nepalese Sanskrit commentary contained in Lévi’s 1932 edition of the Karmavibhaṅga, we are aware of only one (combined) commentary on the las rnam par ’byed pa (Toh 338) and the (here so called) las rnam par ’gyur ba’i mdo (Toh 339) by Choné Lama Drakpa Shedrup (co ne bla ma grags pa bshad sgrub, 1675–1748).38 No canonical commentary on the Karmavibhaṅga is known to us.
None of the other known versions is an exact match of Toh 338. In other words, we do not possess, and do not know whether there ever existed, a complete Indic source text of the las rnam par ’byed pa. The relationships of the different Tibetan versions of the Karmavibhaṅga as well as their relationships to the other extent versions in other languages await further research.
We have based our English translation on the Tibetan text (Toh 338) of the Degé Kangyur as well as the Comparative Edition (dpe bsdur ma) and prioritized the diction and register of the Tibetan translation. However, we have also perused the Sanskrit editions made by Lévi and Kudo in parallel with the Tibetan text and have chosen to translate the corresponding Sanskrit passage instead of the Tibetan in cases where the Tibetan translation was ambiguous or unintelligible. Our preferences are recorded in the notes.
Homage to all the buddhas and bodhisattvas!
“Please do so, Bhagavān!”
The brahmin youth Śuka having thus assented, the Bhagavān said to him, “Son, I say that beings are owners of their own actions,43 they originate from their actions,44 they are heirs of their actions,45 and they take action as their refuge.46 In this way, son, beings are divided into high, middle, and low in terms of their actions.
“What kind of action leads to a short life? Killing, rejoicing in killing, celebrating killing,48 instigating the death of an enemy, praising the death of an enemy, causing death in the womb,49 praising the causing of death in the womb, and preparing the sacrificial ground where buffalo, cows, pigs, birds, and so on are to be killed. The children and grandchildren of the originator of this sacrifice, as well as other people hoping for a positive result or acting out of fear, will kill many beings as they continue to carry out this initial sacrifice.50
“For example, in a certain city in Kāśmīr, a certain mendicant who was an arhat was sitting at the door of a house. On a road leading straight to this house, a miserably mooing cow was being led along on a lead. The mendicant, having seen the cow, exclaimed, ‘Alas! What a misery!’
“He replied, ‘Although I usually do not speak to those without faith, in this particular case I will speak.’51 Then he said, ‘That cow being led along there, mooing, was in a former existence a rich merchant. He had prepared a piece of land for the yearly sacrifice and killed a great many cows there. When the time of his death drew near, he called his sons and said to them, “Sons, if you love me, you will also execute this yearly cattle sacrifice after I am dead!” So instructed, the sons agreed and said, “We will.” Then this man died and, because he had killed out of confusion, was reborn as a cow in his own house. After having been reborn there again and again, and having been killed time and again, this is now the sixth time he is being led to the sacrificial ground.’
“The mendicant then said to the cow with pity, ‘You yourself have prepared this very sacrificial ground. You yourself have performed this very sacrifice and killed many cows. [F.278.a] Your mooing is to no avail! What is it good for?’ So it was said.
“Seeing the preparation of a sacrificial ground such as this is like witnessing a battle52 during which many beings such as humans and horses are killed,53 or like being thrilled about the accoutrements of war.54
“What kind of action leads to a long life? Abstaining from killing; speaking praise of abstaining from killing and encouraging others to do so; freeing people and cattle, pigs, birds, and so forth that are to be killed; giving protection to those stricken with fear; arousing thoughts of kindness toward those who are without protection; arousing thoughts of love toward those who are sick, children, and the elderly; giving food to and arousing thoughts of love toward those who are in need; and rejecting all those things referred to above concerning war and so forth,57 and instead practicing virtue such as renovating and restoring stūpas and monasteries58 that have fallen into disrepair.
“It is said in that same sūtra:
“This kind of action leads to a long life.
“What kind of action leads to having many illnesses? Anger and hitting someone with the fist or the palm of the hand;61 enjoying hitting somebody with the fist or the palm of the hand; speaking praise of the merit of hitting someone with the fist or the palm of the hand and encouraging it; causing one’s parents mental or physical distress; causing monks [F.278.b] who possess moral discipline mental distress; feeling glad when one’s enemies are stricken by illness; feeling unhappy when one’s enemies recover from an illness; and not giving medicine and giving indigestible foods—this kind of action leads to having many illnesses.
“What kind of action leads to having few illnesses? Not hitting someone with the palm of the hand or with the fist;62 encouraging others to abstain from hitting with the palm of the hand or the fist and praising the merits of abstaining from hitting; rejoicing in not hitting; serving one’s ill parents, householders, and monks, regardless of whether they are senior or junior monks; caring for the sick; not feeling happy or glad when one’s enemies fall ill; rejoicing in their recovery; and giving medicine and digestible food63—this kind of action leads to having few illnesses.
“What kind of action leads to having an ugly appearance?64 Anger, enmity, resentment, spite,65 speaking ill of one’s parents, speaking ill of householders and of senior or junior monks, soiling stūpas and monasteries and the site of a stūpa, extinguishing offering lamps at stūpas and images, deriding ugly people, and having little sense of cleanliness—this kind of action leads to ugliness.
“What kind of action leads to beauty? The opposites of anger, enmity, resentment, and spite; donating clothing; plastering66 stūpas and monasteries with white lime;67 donating beautiful68 bowls; making an offering of incense, scented ointment, cloth, and ornaments; praising one’s parents; praising noble ones and those who possess moral discipline; cleaning and sweeping the court around a stūpa, a monastery, and one’s house; not deriding ugly people; not deriding others in general, [F.279.a] whether old or young; and being very cleanly—this kind of action leads to beauty.
“What kind of action leads to having little power?69 Avarice; envy; being unhappy about others’ successes; being unhappy when others are praised; despising one’s parents; despising noble ones and those who possess moral discipline; despising the sick, the old, and the young; praising what is vile, what is lacking Dharma,70 and the roots of nonvirtue; and turning away from the mind of awakening—this kind of action leads to having little power.
“What kind of action leads to being powerful? Not being avaricious; not being envious; rejoicing in others’ successes; not rejoicing in others’ failures; rejoicing in hearing about others’ glory, renown, and good reputation;71 being happy when others are praised; building stūpas and monasteries in commemoration of the Bhagavān;72 turning away from what is vile, from what is lacking Dharma, and from the roots of demerit; encouraging others to engage in the roots of merit that lead to distinction; aspiring to reach awakening; and aspiring to attain distinction through the dedication of all roots of merit73—this kind of action leads to being powerful.
“What kind of action leads to being born into a low social status? Vanity; conceit; not honoring one’s father and mother, śramaṇas, and brāhmaṇas; not respecting the head of a family; not attending to74 one’s parents; not attending to noble ones, to those who possess moral discipline, and to others occupying a position of authority, such as one’s preceptor and one’s teacher; and despising people of low class—this kind of action leads to being born into a low social status.
“What kind of action leads to being born into a family of high social status? Having little vanity; having no conceit; honoring one’s father and mother, śramaṇas, [F.279.b] and brāhmaṇas; honoring the head of the family; attending to one’s parents; attending to noble ones, to those who possess moral discipline, and to others occupying a position of authority, such one’s preceptor and teacher; and not despising people of low class.
“ ‘Monks, you should know that a community76 that is approached by monks who possess moral discipline, are celibate, and possess the quality of virtue can expect five benefits. What are the five? It develops faith in the ones possessing moral discipline who have approached them. Furthermore, monks, at that time, that community enters the path leading to rebirth in heaven. And what is more, monks, the moment the community greets and welcomes those approaching who possess moral discipline, the community has already entered the path leading to rebirth in heaven.’
“This kind of action leads to being reborn in a family of high social status.
“What kind of action leads to poverty?77 Stealing;78 encouraging others to commit theft; speaking praise of stealing; taking pleasure in stealing and in having stolen;79 depriving one’s parents of their livelihood; depriving noble ones and those who possess moral discipline of their livelihood and stealing the livelihood of monks, children, the elderly, the poor, and the sick; rejoicing when others fail to gain wealth; preventing others from gaining wealth; and rejoicing in a bad harvest—this kind of action leads to poverty.
“What kind of action leads to wealth? Abstaining from stealing; rejoicing when someone abstains from taking what was not freely given to them by others; providing one’s parents with a livelihood; providing noble ones and those who possess moral discipline [F.280.a] with a livelihood; offering sustenance to the sick, children, the elderly, the poor, and others; rejoicing in the gain of others; and rejoicing in a good harvest.
“In the same sūtra it is said:
“ ‘What is more, monks, when the merit-collecting communities make offerings to those approaching them who possesses moral discipline they enter the path leading to prosperity.’
“This kind of action leads to great wealth.
“What kind of action leads to low intelligence?80 Here, one does not ask the learned81 śramaṇas or brāhmaṇas or others, ‘What is the Dharma? What is not the Dharma?82 What, when done by me, is conducive to happiness?’83 One associates with84 people who lack intelligence and abandons wise people. One teaches what is not the true Dharma, and even though one knows that a reciter of the Buddhist scriptures has spoken well, due to one’s being opinionated85 one does not say ‘well done!’ But when a reciter has spoken what does not correspond with the Dharma, one says ‘well done!’ One praises wrong views and criticizes right views. One denigrates writers and reciters of manuscripts86 and deprives them of their livelihood. This kind of action leads to low intelligence.
“What kind of action leads to great intelligence? Here, one has a disposition that dares to inquire87 and asks the learned śramaṇas and brāhmaṇas questions; one completely shuns those lacking wisdom; one extols the true Dharma and elucidates it; one criticizes what is not the true Dharma; and one praises the confidence of the Dharma reciters88 and says ‘well done!’ One acclaims those who speak coherently and steers clear of those who speak what is unacceptable;89 one praises right view and criticizes90 wrong view; one makes offerings of paper, ink, and reed pens;91 and, as explained in the Nandikasūtra,92 one does not drink alcohol. [F.280.b] The thirty-five93 faults of drinking alcohol that are taught in that sūtra will be discussed later in the section on the nonvirtuous actions.94 This kind of action leads to great intelligence.
“What kind of action leads to rebirth as a hell being? Carrying out gravely negative actions of body, speech, and mind with intensely angry thoughts; entertaining the wrong view of annihilation, the wrong view of eternalism, and the wrong view of nihilism;95 speaking with hostility;96 ingratitude; performing the evil actions that bring immediate retribution; and flinging false accusations at noble ones and those who possess moral discipline—this kind of action leads to rebirth in the hell realms.
“What kind of action leads to rebirth in the animal realm?97 Carrying out moderately bad actions with body, speech, and mind and the varied actions stemming from desire, hatred, and confusion; presenting improper gifts98 to one’s parents or Buddhist monks; ridiculing99 beings who are reborn in the animal realm; and making the aspiration to be reborn there as, for example, when someone practices the ox vow or the dog vow,100 thinking, ‘May I be reborn like that!’101
“The brahmin Varṣākāra saw the sthavira Mahākāśyapa on Vulture Peak, flying in the sky above the city of Rājagṛha.104 Because of his close association with Devadatta and Prince Ajātaśatru, he harbored hostile thoughts in his mind and made this insulting comment:105 ‘This monk flies through the air from mountain peak to mountain peak just as a monkey swings from tree to tree.’
“The Bhagavān said, ‘During these five hundred lives you will be reborn in Rājagṛha in the Jambu continent, the Rose-Apple continent, which derives its name from the fruits called jambu that are the size of large earthen pots and delicious like the pure honey of bees.110 From there, leaving this incarnation, you will reach heaven.’111
“What kind of action leads to rebirth in the realm of ghosts?114 Here, someone adopts a negative course of conduct115 of body, speech, and mind with a mind full of anger and hatred or craving; pursues a wrong way of making a living116 due to improper desire; dies while being angry, hungry, or thirsty; or dies while having thoughts of attachment to material things.
“What kind of action leads to rebirth in the realm of the asuras? Someone’s committing only small or minor misdeeds with body, speech, and mind; [F.281.b] pride; arrogance;119 the pride of identification with a self;120 the pride of inferiority;121 dedicating the roots of virtue of one’s positive actions to rebirth in the world of the asuras;122 and following an immoral course of conduct yet in an intelligent manner that springs from refined desire—this kind of action leads to rebirth in the realm of the asuras.
“What kind of action leads to rebirth as a human? Here, one cultivates the ten virtuous courses of action. What are the ten? One abandons the ten nonvirtuous actions: the three physical actions of killing, stealing,123 and sexual misconduct; the four verbal actions of lying, slander, harsh speech, and idle talk; and, furthermore, the three mental actions of covetousness,124 malice, and wrong views.125 This kind of action leads to rebirth as a human.
“What kind of action leads to rebirth as a deva belonging to the realm of sensuous desire?126 Here, someone practices well, and brings to perfection, the ten virtuous courses of action—this kind of action leads to rebirth as a deva belonging to the realm of sensuous desire.
“What kind of action leads to rebirth as a deva belonging to the realm of form? Someone practices well the ten virtuous courses of action, accomplishes them, and brings them to perfection to an especially superior degree—this kind of action leads to rebirth as a deva belonging to the realm of form.
“What kind of action leads to rebirth as a deva belonging to the formless realm? One enters the four attainments of the formless states and, having entirely and completely transcended all notions of form, and the notion of materiality having vanished, through disengaging the mind from the notion of distinctness, thinking, ‘Space is infinite,’127 one has perfected the sphere of infinity of space and abides in it.128 Having entirely and completely transcended the sphere of infinity of space, [F.282.a] thinking, ‘Consciousness is infinite,’ one has perfected the sphere of infinity of consciousness and abides in it.129 Having entirely and completely transcended the sphere of infinity of consciousness, thinking, ‘Nothing at all exists,’ one has perfected the sphere of nothingness and abides in it.130 Having entirely and completely transcended the sphere of nothingness, one has perfected the sphere of neither perception nor nonperception and abides in it.131 This kind of action leads to rebirth as a deva belonging to the formless realm.
“What kind of action is performed but not accumulated?132 Having carried out an action,133 one feels shame, remorse,134 and deprecation, and one confesses and openly admits one’s faults; one parts with it and vows not to do it again in the future.135 This kind of action is performed but not accumulated.
“What kind of action is accumulated but not carried out? An action that is to be completed with the body and concerning which one says with a defiled mind, ‘I will do this,’ but then does not actually follow through136—this kind of action is accumulated but not carried out.
“What kind of action is both carried out and accumulated?137 Having carried out an action, one does not feel shame; one does not remedy it, regret it, deprecate it, confess it, admit it, renounce it, or give it up; and one does not vow to not do it again in the future—action like this is both carried out and accumulated.
“What kind of action is neither carried out nor accumulated?138 An action that one has intentionally carried out or made someone else carry out in a dream139—action like this is neither carried out nor accumulated.
“What kind of action leads to being reborn in hell and passing away from there only after having completely exhausted the lifespan of the hell?140 In this regard, one has carried out actions that lead to rebirth as a hell being, and these actions are accumulated, [F.282.b] but having carried out these actions, one feels neither shame nor remorse, and one neither deprecates nor confesses and admits the actions done. One does not vow not to do them again in the future but instead rejoices and is satisfied like, for instance, Devadatta, Kokālika, and so forth.141 Action like this leads to being reborn in hell and passing away from there only after having completely exhausted the lifespan of the hell.
“What kind of action leads to being reborn in hell and passing away from there after only half the lifespan of the hell is exhausted? In this regard, someone has carried out actions that lead to becoming a hell being but feels shame and remorse and deprecates, confesses, admits, rejects, and gives up those actions and vows not to do them again in the future. In this way does this kind of action lead to being reborn in hell and passing away from there after only half the lifespan of the hell is exhausted.142
“What kind of action leads to passing away from hell immediately upon being born there? In this regard, one has carried out actions that lead to rebirth as a hell being, and these actions are accumulated; but, having done these actions, one feels shame, remorse, and deprecation, confesses and admits those actions, and gives them up. By making the promise, ‘From now on I will not do it again!’ one will pass away from that state immediately upon being reborn there.
“For example, when King Ajātaśatru heard that he would go to the Avīci hell143 for carrying out the evil actions that bring immediate retribution—namely, murdering his father, splitting the monastic saṅgha, releasing the wild elephant Dhanapāla,144 and hurling a boulder onto the Tathāgata145 to kill him—he became distraught146 and developed faith in the Bhagavān. He confessed his sins and, as is related in the Śrāmaṇyaphalasūtra,147 restored his roots of virtue.148 When he was about to die, he prayed, ‘From the core of my being149 I take refuge in the Buddha. I have carried out intolerable actions, for which I feel remorse and which I confess; by promising not to do such actions ever again, they will diminish and eventually be completely erased.’ [F.283.a] Then he went silent.150
“What kind of action leads to a predetermined rebirth? As for that, a person carries out an action, and, by dedicating the action in a certain way—‘May I be reborn as such a one!’—that person will be reborn as that one.151 For example, in the Śyāmākajātaka,152 the Bhagavān relates accordingly how one is reborn through the power of a strong aspiration.153 This kind of action leads to a predetermined rebirth.
“What kind of action leads to an unpredetermined rebirth? As for that, a person carries out an action but does not dedicate it by specifying ‘May I be reborn as such and such!’154 This kind of action leads to an unpredetermined rebirth.
“What kind of action leads to the ripening155 of a karmic result in a foreign country? In this regard, there will be ripening of a pleasant or painful karmic result in a foreign country either in this very life or in the next.156
“ ‘Monks, once upon a time, when the lifespan of humans of the Jambu continent was indefinite, like that of the king Māndhātar, there lived in a certain city a sea merchant’s157 son named Maitrāyajña.158 Surrounded by five hundred friends, he went to an orchard,159 where his friends said to him, “In this city, merchants like your father160 were sailors traveling to foreign lands like, for instance, the Golden Island161 to see other continents and accumulate riches.162 We, yourself included, should set sail and accumulate riches, too.”
“ ‘His mother replied, “Son, there is already such immeasurable wealth in this house. Don’t go!”
“ ‘Maitrāyajña, after hearing his mother’s words, which persuaded him not to go, immediately went back to the orchard. The friends said, “In this matter, you need to entreat your mother even more.”163 [F.283.b]
“ ‘Having heard their words, he said, “So be it!” and again went to his mother to ask. But she clasped his feet,164 and so, again, he stayed. Immediately upon having asked her for a third time, he went back to the orchard.
“ ‘His friends said to him, “This is impossible! We must go!”165 And Maitrāyajña went once again to his mother and said, “I will go to a foreign land!” The mother then gathered all their possessions, clasped one of his feet, and made him stay once again.
“ ‘Therefore, once more the boy went to the orchard, and his friends said, “It is your fault that we, too, still have not left. We will now leave on the thirteenth day!”166
“ ‘Then Maitrāyajña, without his mother’s knowledge, drew out their abundant merchandise and put it on the street. His mother, standing in the doorway, clasped his feet again and said, “Son, don’t go!” but Maitrāyajña, in his anger, stepped on his mother’s head,167 left, and went to the shore of the sea.
“ ‘There he instructed his friends, “When we are going to set sail, it is uncertain whether we will live or die. Therefore, we should all maintain the eight precepts!” And they, heeding Maitrāyajña’s words, promised to maintain the precepts.
“ ‘Thus, they set sail, and when they had gone far into the center of the ocean, they were caught by a mighty storm, and their ship capsized. All the others died, but Maitrāyajña had seized a large copper vessel whose mouth could be closed with a piece of fabric, and eventually he reached the end of the ocean.168 He then continued to wander until he came to a city with a golden city wall and an orchard and a lotus pond that was pervaded by a pleasant fragrance. He saw flower petals scattered everywhere and many wreaths made from silk ribbons that had been put up as ornaments.169 From inside this city, four goddesses appeared and, taking him by the hand, led him inside. Then, after he amused himself with them for many years, many hundreds of years, many thousands of years, and many hundreds of thousands of years, the goddesses ordered170 him, “Son of noble family,171 since you are a stranger in this land, you should not go outside. [F.284.a] However, if you happen to leave sometime, head north!”172
“ ‘On another occasion, Maitrāyajña left the city and continued wandering until he arrived at a city with a silver city wall and an orchard and a lotus pond that was pervaded by a pleasant fragrance. He saw flower petals scattered everywhere and many wreaths made from silk ribbons that had been put up as ornaments. From inside the city, eight goddesses appeared. Like before, after he had amused himself with them,173 at some other time he left.
“ ‘After wandering and wandering, he arrived at a city with a lapis lazuli174 city wall. Just as before, he saw flower petals scattered everywhere and many wreaths made from silk ribbons hung up as ornaments. From inside the city, sixteen goddesses appeared, and they, too, took him by the hand and led him inside, and with them, too, he amused himself for many hundreds of thousands of years.
“ ‘At a later time he left, and after wandering and wandering, he arrived at a city with a rock-crystal city wall, and he saw everything like before—from the scattered flower petals to the wreaths made from silk ribbons. From inside this city, thirty-two goddesses appeared, and they, too, took him by the hand and led him inside. As before, after he had amused himself with them, they ordered him, “Son of noble family, since you are a stranger in this land, you should not leave this city.175 However, if you have to go, head north!”176
“ ‘Immediately afterward, he left the house, faced north, and walked and walked. Eventually, he came to a thicket of thorns and saw a city with a black iron city wall. He approached, and as soon as he stepped inside, the city’s gates slammed shut. Looking up the city walls, he saw them rising higher, and he could hear a dreadful sound coming from beyond them. “What kind of place is this?” he thought, and he became terrified when he saw a man whose head was cut by a wheel made of sword blades that was rotating above his head.
“ ‘The man told his story: [F.284.b] “In the Jambu continent there is a city called Mahākośalī. There I used to live, and I, too, happened to be a son of a sea merchant. Surrounded by five hundred friends, I went to the city’s large orchard.
“ ‘ “There my friends said, ‘Your father is the head of the sea merchants’ guild.178 And following his lead,179 they, our fathers, traveled to foreign lands and procured vast riches. They saw the Golden Island, the island of Sri Lanka, and many other islands. We, too, with you as our leader, will travel to foreign countries.’ So they pledged.
“ ‘ “Then I went home and said to my mother, ‘I will go aboard a ship and voyage the ocean to go to foreign countries!’
“ ‘ “My mother replied, ‘Son, your father, too, has gone aboard a ship, and having gone to many foreign countries, he died. Son, you are all I have left!180 Our house is filled with riches. Don’t go!’
“ ‘ “I, too, promised my mother that I would not go. In this way, mother clasped my feet three or four times, bidding me to stay, and I stayed. But at another time, I went to the orchard and my friends said, ‘We will go anyway.’
“ ‘ “ ‘Well, we should go then!’ I said, and by making this promise, we departed.
“ ‘ “My mother clasped my feet at the door and said, ‘It is not right to leave me behind!’ But I stepped on my mother’s head and went off with my five hundred friends to the shore of the sea.
“ ‘ “After we took up the eight precepts, we set sail. We were well on our way to the Golden Island181 when a strong gale caught us and capsized the ship, killing all the friends. As for myself, after many days I reached the end of the ocean. I started to wander, and after continuously walking I eventually arrived at a city with a golden city wall and an orchard and a lotus pond that was pervaded by a pleasant fragrance. I saw flower petals scattered everywhere and many wreaths made from silk ribbons that had been put up as ornaments.
“ ‘ “From inside that city, four goddesses182 appeared, [F.285.a] thirty-two goddesses appeared, and so on as before, until183 I saw a city enclosed by an iron wall and went inside. As soon as I stepped inside, the gates slammed shut. There,184 too, I saw a man with a wheel made of185 swords rotating above his head. And there and then the wheel was transferred to where I was standing nearby, onto my own head. Due to the ripening of the karmic fruit of my action of having desisted from leaving home by obeying my mother’s words four times and taking up the eight precepts, I enjoyed a personal heaven in four cities. Due to the ripening of the karmic fruit of my action of stepping on my mother’s head when setting out, a wheel made of sword blades is now rotating above and lacerating my head.”
“ ‘Upon hearing this, Maitrāyajña thought, “I, too, have in the past carried out an action that is very similar to that one. I can see that the ripening of the karmic fruits of my own action is immanent!”
“ ‘ “It is true then!”187 said the hell being. “I heard a voice coming from the sky that said, ‘The karmic fruit of your action is exhausted. One will come whose name is Maitrāyajña, the son of a sea merchant, who has committed an action similar to yours.’ ”188
“ ‘With an earnest intention, [F.285.b] he bowed down in reverence to his imagined parents and made another aspiration: “Wherever I am reborn, I will honor my parents! I will remain here in this individual hell for the sake of those who will be reborn here. To those in the world who are engaged in proper conduct192 and those who are liberated, I bow in reverence. I pray that they will protect me.” And he stayed there as a being of this individual hell and made a further aspiration for the sake of his parents:
“ ‘Due to this utterance, the wheel remained in the air above, rotating but without touching his head. And also, because his mother perpetually made this aspiration, “If there is any benefit to be derived from the merit that I have accumulated through my practice of generosity, ethics, and being a faithful wife, may the fruit of this merit lead to the happiness of my son, whatever and wherever he may be,” he was at peace.
“Accordingly, for example, King Ajātaśatru passed away without having entirely completed his lifespan in hell. But since the karmic fruit of actions do not dissipate, he sometimes suffered from excruciating194 headaches.195
“Then, when the right time had come, the Bhagavān addressed the monks: ‘Monks, you may think that the sea merchant’s son named Maitrāyajña was just somebody else at that time. But this is not how you should see it. I myself was at that time the sea merchant’s son named Maitrāyajña. Therefore, monks, have faith in my words! You should cultivate reverence196 for the Bhagavān! You should cultivate reverence for the Dharma and the Saṅgha! You should also revere your parents, [F.286.a] your preceptor, and your teacher! Know this, monks: Those who travel to a foreign land can experience both pleasure and pain, just like Maitrāyajña, who after traveling to a foreign country experienced a personal heaven and a personal hell in a single lifetime. In this way, action that leads to the experience of pleasure and pain in a foreign country will ripen accordingly in a foreign country.’
“Hence, the Bhagavān has furthermore said the following: ‘Whether something is done for me or for your parents, your preceptor, or your teacher, there is no difference, and the karmic result is the same, experienced either in this lifetime or the next.197 How, then, is the karmic result the same in this very life?’
“For example, once in Śrāvastī some poor person saw the Bhagavān, together with the Saṅgha of hearers, begging for alms. And because at that moment he developed reverence in his mind, he accumulated an immense stock of merit, and since this also created the action that led him to become a king, that reverence by itself became the seed for his liberation. When this came to the Bhagavān’s attention, he uttered the following verses:
“Then, at the moment of his death, he was reborn as a god.
“Another example is that of the pratyekabuddha Tagaraśikhin.201 During a famine, a poor man had offered some broth,202 and because of that he was anointed king in this city203 on that same day. Later he became a pratyekabuddha. Furthermore, it is said in the sūtras [F.286.b] that the karmic fruit of a mind full of devotion similar to that of the pratyekabuddha whose name is Tagaraśikhin will ripen in this very lifetime.
“When he honored his parent, Maitrāyajña, the son of the sea merchant, experienced an individual heaven in four great cities because he had listened to his mother’s words and complied with them four times. Since it had become the seed for his liberation, the ripening of the karmic fruit took place in this life.204
“Will one go to hell through expressing anger toward the Bhagavān and one’s parents? An example here is Devadatta, who, after he had become angry with the Bhagavān, fell into the Avīci hell immediately upon his death. Or there is the prince Utraka205 in the city of Rauruka206 in the land of Sindhu, who killed his father and consequently fell into the hell realms.207 Thus, one will go to the hell realms through expressing anger toward the Bhagavān or one’s parents.
“Now, is there a difference with regard to the Buddha and one’s parents, or are they not different?208 Concerning the Bhagavān, generating devotion toward him, who during many hundreds of thousands of cosmic ages has accumulated a stock of merit generated by his roots of virtue, who taught the Dharma to those lacking a path,209 and who bestows awakening upon us, the karmic fruit is immeasurable. To parents the path to liberation is unknown.210 Furthermore, one need not always obey the words of one’s parents. Why not? Because there are some who hold false views and who say to their child,211 ‘Child, bring us to an uninhabited place212—you will benefit from this and be happy!’ or ‘Abandon us in a chasm! Commit us to the flames!’ When they say such things, this ought not to be done. Why not? Because through murdering one’s parents one will certainly go to the hell realms. Therefore, the Bhagavān has said not to accept those who have killed their parents into the novitiate and that such people should not be accepted for full ordination, [F.287.a] and for this reason such people should be shunned.213
“How, then, are one’s parents, one’s preceptor, and one’s teacher equal?214 In this regard, the Bhagavān has said, ‘Parents love their children from the depths of their hearts.’215 Therefore, when parents do not give their permission, one should not accept someone into the novitiate. Take, for example, the noble Rāṣṭrapāla,216 among others.217 When his parents did not let him go, the Bhagavān did not accept him as a novice.218 Still today219 ordination is not given without parents’ consent.220 Or, for example, it is said that when the Bhagavān himself adopted the life of a mendicant, his parents went blind out of grief for the loss of King Śuddhodana’s son,221 because they had wished for the birth of a son who would uphold their legacy in these five areas: ‘This son of ours that we will give birth to, after being born, will support us;222 he will continue to perform our duties; he will become the inheritor of our wealth;223 when we die, he will perform the ancestral food offerings; and he will continue the family lineage.’224
“The preceptor and the teacher, however, have compassion as their priority. Their sole concern is this: ‘So long as he cannot adopt the life of a mendicant because his parents do not give their permission, how will this one who has been wandering in saṃsāra since time immemorial reach the end of it?’225 For example, the Bhagavān says the following in the Vinaya:
“ ‘Which action leads to the karmic result of the wheel-turning monarch obtaining the precious elephant and the precious horse?228 Carrying one’s parents around on one’s shoulders, or having them mount a carriage drawn by a horse or by an elephant, and carrying one’s preceptor and one’s teacher oneself.229 [F.287.b] The wheel-turning monarch obtains the precious elephant and the precious horse through the karmic ripening of the action of having others carried. For this reason, too, are the parents and the preceptor and the teacher equal. Furthermore, for householders, parents are the object of adoration.230 For those who have adopted the life of a mendicant, the preceptors and the teachers are the object of adoration. For this reason, too, are preceptors and the teachers equal to parents.’231
“ ‘Monks, suppose someone took their parents on their back and roamed the Jambu continent with them, provided them with provisions, and filled the whole of the four continents with riches and gold—even this kind of generosity could not repay the parents’ kindness. But, if someone were to cause another person to develop faith in the Buddha, the Dharma, and the Saṅgha and establish them in the five precepts and in the moral conduct that is praised by noble ones, in this way children would be repaying their parents’ kindness. And that is precisely what preceptors and teachers do!’232
“It is for this reason that the preceptor and the teacher are more distinguished than the parents.233 In short, ever since the time of the Bhagavān’s nirvāṇa, all those pacified234 and tamed monks, nuns, laymen, and laywomen, and whoever else, have been pacified and tamed by their preceptors and teachers.235 It is because of this that the Bhagavān has said, ‘Monks, those who believe in my words should give rise to the highest faith in the Bhagavān, as well as in the Dharma and the Saṅgha! And they should give rise to the highest faith in their parents, their preceptor, and their teacher! This will lead to their benefit and happiness for a long time to come.’236 This kind of action [F.288.a] leads to the ripening of a karmic result in a foreign country.237
“What kind of action leads to a person being happy at first and becoming unhappy in the future? If someone were to ask this, one should reply as follows:238 ‘Here, a person is stopped by a beggar, for instance, and, asked for alms or a donation, delightedly accepts and then gives with joy but afterward regrets having given. When this person is reborn as a human in a rich and wealthy family, later the wealth is consumed and depleted. Then this person becomes poor, just as in the story of Gopaka.239 He had offered a milk cow to the fully enlightened Buddha Krakucchanda and his saṅgha of monks. But later, people made him regret it so that he thought, “It was not good to have given this.” Therefore, because he had regrets, wherever he was reborn, he first was rich and then later, due to these regrets, became poor. Later,240 he was reborn in Rājagṛha. His mother died at his birth and people said, “His birth is the reason for his mother’s death! Since he was born under the constellation Mūla,241 he will destroy this family.242 He is bad luck!” And so they just discarded him together with his mother in the cemetery. But there, through the power of his merits, his mother’s breasts still produced milk. In this way, he nourished himself, developed fully, and eventually went to the Blessed One and became a monk.243 Thus, this was the karmic fruit of his action of first offering a milk cow with faith and then later regretting it. His offering with a faithful attitude in the beginning became the very seed of his liberation. But due to his later regret, it is said, he always ended up poor.244 This kind of action leads to a person being happy at first and becoming unhappy in the future.’
“What kind of action leads to a person being unhappy at first and becoming happy later? If someone were to ask this, one should reply as follows: ‘In this case, someone is asked to make an offering, accepts only very reluctantly,245 and accordingly makes the offering only reluctantly, [F.288.b] but following the offering they experience joy. Then, when reborn among humans, this person is born into a poor family at first, but later their wealth increases. This kind of action leads to a person being unhappy at first and becoming happy later.’246
“What kind of action leads to a person being both happy at first and happy in the future? In this case, someone is begged by somebody for alms and delightedly and immediately agrees to give. And, having given alms joyfully, this person later, too, is happy. Then, when reborn as a human being, this person will be reborn in a very rich and very wealthy family. This kind of action leads to a person being both happy at first and happy in the future.247
“What kind of action leads to a person experiencing both suffering248 at first and suffering in the future? In this case, someone is without a spiritual friend, a spiritual preceptor, who would encourage him to give alms. Consequently, he gives nothing whatsoever. But he has neither done nor accumulated any bad actions at all. When he is reborn as a human being, he will be born into a poor family that has to survive with a scarcity of food and drink due to hardship. When born there, he obtains food and clothing only with great difficulty.249 Also, in the future his resources will not increase.250 This kind of action leads to a person experiencing both suffering at first and suffering in the future.
“What kind of action leads to a person being wealthy and stingy? A person makes only a small offering to those who possess moral discipline and who are recipients worthy of offerings, but he does not make a habit of the attitude of giving away. Then, when he is reborn as a human being, due to the power of generosity, he will be born into a rich family [F.289.a] having great riches. However, because he did not make a habit of the attitude of giving away, he becomes stingy with his wealth. This kind of action leads to a person being wealthy and stingy.
“What kind of action leads to a person being poor and generous? In this case, a certain person makes offerings liberally to animals and to people who are ill behaved.251 Then, when he is reborn as a human being, he will be both poor and generous. By virtue of having made practicing generosity a habit, he will be poor yet generous. This kind of action leads to a person being poor and being generous.
“What kind of action leads to a person being rich and generous? In this case, someone makes liberal offerings to those who possess moral discipline and who are worthy recipients of offerings and makes a habit of the attitude of giving. Therefore, when he is reborn as a human being, he will be rich, and his wealth will be extensive. For example, consider the householder Anāthapiṇḍada. He first offered Prince Jeta’s grove to the completely perfect Buddha Krakucchanda and had a monastery erected for the monks there. In the same manner, in former births252 he offered Prince Jeta’s grove to the completely perfect buddhas Kanakamuni, Kāśyapa, and Sarvārthasiddha, and he will equally offer it to Maitreya with its entire ground strewn253 with gold. This kind of action leads to a person being rich and generous.
“What kind of person has exhausted their lifespan but not their actions? A person who dies in a hell realm and is reborn in that same hell realm, a person who dies as an animal and is reborn as an animal, a person who dies in the realm of ghosts and is reborn in the realm of ghosts, and a person who dies as a god and is reborn as a god. The brahmin Varṣākāra, for instance, died repeatedly and was reborn as a monkey. [F.289.b] Or, for instance, the aforementioned householder254 was repeatedly reborn as cattle.255 When a certain poor householder in Śrāvastī died, an ox with an ulcer on its shoulder was standing in front of the house. Because the householder was very attached to his house, after he had died, he was reborn as a maggot in the ox’s ulcer. Immediately after he was reborn, a crow ate him, and later he was reborn in that same spot again as a maggot. In this manner, during one single day, he died and was reborn seven times in this same spot!
“Or, for example, when the venerable Mahāmaudgalyāyana was wandering through the country of Magadha collecting alms, he entered a house in which a householder sat together with his wife, holding their son in his lap. They were eating a meal of fish, while in front of them sat a dog, to whom they tossed the fish bones. Then, when the householder saw Mahāmaugalyāyana, he said to him, ‘Friend, nobody here gives alms to beggars. Go away!’ And Mahāmaugalyāyana turned around.256
“At the door of that house, there had been sitting all the while some man257 who had come from another country and who knew the sthavira Mahāmaudgalyāyana.258 When he saw what had happened, he was amazed and said, ‘Oh dear! This venerable monk is the foremost among those possessing magical powers. He has tamed the kings of the nāgas, Nanda and Upananda.259 He shook the divine palace Vaijayanta with his left toe, and through that the king of the gods, Indra, marveled. He traversed the realm of the trichiliocosm in the blink of an eye. These things being so, it is astounding that he was sent away without having been offered alms!’
“ ‘Well, what then is astonishing?’ the man asked.
“He replied, ‘This householder here, eating fish curry, is astonishing! The fish was his father. He would frequently scoop out and eat fish from the pond behind the house that carried a lot of fish. [F.290.a] Then he died and was reborn as this very fish. His son, too, frequently scooped out and ate that fish many hundreds of times. And he, too, was reborn in that same spot many times, again and again. This female dog here was the householder’s mother. She, overpowered by greed, never made an offering to anybody. And she never safeguarded ethical conduct but instead meanly hoarded possessions for the sake of the family lineage. And after she had died with her thoughts attached to this same house, she was reborn here as that female dog. Then, after she died again, she was reborn again and again in this same place. This dog circles around the house on the outside for the whole night, afraid that somebody could enter. The son sitting in the lap of that man was the wife’s lover. When the householder found out that his wife was sleeping with another man, he pretended that he had to go to another city. As soon as he left, the woman slept with the other man, but her husband returned home260 and killed him. But because he was attached and attracted to that woman, he was reborn in her womb. See, my dear: The meat they eat is their father’s. The one to whom they toss the fish bones is the mother. The enemy, the adulterer, who is the one who was killed in a rage, they cradle in their lap. Therefore, it is only reasonable to feel disgust for the faults of saṃsāra, because this is truly astounding.’
“This kind of person is someone whose lifespan is exhausted but not their actions.
“What kind of person has exhausted their actions but not their lifespan? A person who was happy at first and becomes unhappy in the future, or a person who was unhappy at first and in the future becomes happy—this kind of person is someone who has exhausted their actions but not their lifespan.
“What kind of person has exhausted both their actions and their lifespan? [F.290.b] A person who dies as a hell being and is reborn as an animal, a person who dies as an animal and is reborn in the realm of ghosts,262 a person who dies as a ghost and is reborn as an asura, a person who dies as an asura and is reborn as a human being,263 and a person who dies as a human being and is reborn as a god—this kind of person has exhausted both their actions and their lifespan.264
265“What kind of person has exhausted neither their lifespan nor their actions but has exhausted the kleśas? A stream enterer, a once-returner, a non-returner, and an arhat266—this kind of person has exhausted neither their lifespan nor their actions but has exhausted the kleśas.
“What kind of person is well267 in body but unhappy in mind? A worldly, ordinary person who has acquired merit is well in body but not in his mind—for example, the brahmin, the householder, the king Māndhātar,268 and so forth in the country of Magadha.269 This kind of person is well in body but unhappy in his mind.
“What kind of person is happy in mind but unwell in body? For example, the arhat Karmaśa,270 who was happy in mind but unwell in body. Or, in the same manner, the noble Śoṇottara,271 who, in a former life, gave a ball made of cow dung mixed with cowhage272 to a pratyekabuddha for his bath. Through the complete ripening of this action, he suffered from leprosy spreading all over his body. The following verse is said to illustrate this:
“Or consider, for instance, Jaṅghākāśyapa:275 When a certain pratyekabuddha came to Benares, Jaṅghākāśyapa thought, ‘I will offer him a meal.’ Then, after a long time, he offered food after the appropriate mealtime had passed. Through this action, in a future time, when he had become a noble person himself, while going on his morning alms round, he arrived too late to obtain any food. A person like this is happy in mind but unwell in body.
“What kind of person is well in both body and mind? [F.291.a] An arhat who has destroyed the contaminants and who has accumulated merit. For example, Bakula,276 the son of the king Dharmayaśas, roared this lion’s roar: ‘In the eighty years since I have gone forth, I have not even experienced a light headache.’ In the past, he was a perfume seller in Benares. There he offered medicine to cure the sick to the Buddha Krakucchanda and his saṅgha of hearers. Also, he once gave a myrobalan fruit to an arhat. Through the karmic ripening of these actions, he was free from illness and obtained perfect health. This kind of person is well in both body and mind.
277“What kind of person is not well in both body and mind?278 An ordinary person279 who has not accumulated any merit, roves about other peoples’ homes, has no family or kin, and is without clothes, food, and drink. This person furthermore suffers from diseases like leprosy, chronic cough,280 dysentery,281 ulcers,282 skin rashes, and so forth,283 or this person is missing limbs, such as a foot or a hand, or is blind. Such a person is unwell in body and in mind.
“What kind of person has a pleasing body that is beautiful, shiny, of brilliant color, handsome, and lovely to look at despite being reborn in the lower realms? A wicked person, whose wickedness is due to desire, who is reborn in the lower realms—for example, the peacock, the parrot, the thrush,284 the goose,285 the ruddy shelduck,286 and so forth. In this way, when a person behaves wickedly due to desire, they will have a pleasing body that is beautiful, shiny, of brilliant color, attractive, and lovely to look at, despite being reborn in the lower realms.
“What kind of person is reborn in the lower realms with an unpleasant appearance, rough skinned and unattractive? A wicked person, whose wickedness is due to hatred, [F.291.b] who is reborn in the lower realms—for example, the tiger, the lion, the raven, the jackal, the bear,287 the spectacled cobra,288 ghosts, flesh-eating demons, and so forth. In this way, when a person behaves wickedly due to hatred, they will be reborn in the lower realms and with an unpleasant appearance, rough skinned and unattractive.
“What kind of person is reborn in the lower realms, in a foul-smelling place, with underdeveloped and slow faculties?289 A wicked person, whose wickedness is due to ignorance, who is reborn in the lower realms—for example, the muskrat, vermin, the constrictor,290 the louse, the black honeybee,291 and other bugs,292 as well as the twenty kinds of worms living in the human body. Such a person is reborn in the lower realms, in foul-smelling places, with underdeveloped and slow faculties.
“There are ten courses of action that are nonvirtuous. What are the ten? There are three actions of the body, four actions of speech, and three actions of the mind. The karmic ripening of those ten nonvirtuous courses of action causes the ten kinds of external things293 to deteriorate.294
“Through the karmic ripening of the nonvirtuous action of stealing, hail, birds, locusts, mice, vermin,298 and so forth will appear on the earth and eat the crops. The karmic result equivalent to the action is that one will experience the loss of one’s wealth.
“Through the karmic ripening of the nonvirtuous action of sexual misconduct, bad-smelling herbs and forests will grow on the earth.299 The karmic result equivalent to the action is entering the state of a prosperous layman or laywoman. In this regard, there are three avadānas: the avadāna of Śvabhrapāda; the avadāna of Susudhī, the unfaithful wife of the king of Benares; and the avadāna of Kālodāyin300 in his former rebirth in Devāvataraṇa.301
“Through the karmic ripening of the nonvirtuous action of lying [F.292.a] come diseases of the mouth and throat,302 bad breath, and so forth. The karmic result equivalent to the action is that one will be deceived by lies.303
“Through the karmic ripening of the nonvirtuous action of slander, painful sensations arise from the touch of pebbles and gravel on the ground. The karmic result equivalent to the action is that one’s servants and retinue are likely to be divisive.304
“Through the karmic ripening of the nonvirtuous action of harsh speech, winds carrying dust and dirt will rise, and heavy rains and so forth will fall to the ground. The karmic result equivalent to the action is that one will hear unpleasant sounds and see unpleasant sights.
“Through the karmic ripening of the nonvirtuous action of idle talk, high and low grounds, deep valleys, ravines, precipices, and so forth will materialize.305 The karmic result equivalent to the action is that no one will believe one’s words.306
“Through the karmic ripening of the nonvirtuous action of covetousness, fruits, as well as the seed heads of barley, wheat, and so forth, will be small. These and other faults of awn and stalk will be rife. The karmic result equivalent to the action is that one’s possessions will be carried off by strangers.307
“Through the karmic ripening of the nonvirtuous action of malice, the field crops and fruits will be pungent and bitter. The karmic result equivalent to the action is that one will see repulsive things.308
“Through the karmic ripening of the nonvirtuous action of wrong views, small fruits that are poisonous and putrid smelling,309 and so forth, or no fruits at all, will appear.310 The karmic result equivalent to the action is that one will be a nihilist and believe in the treatises of the nihilists,311 the wrong view of annihilation312 or that of the materialists,313 and other wrong views.314
“The more one cultivates the courses of the ten nonvirtuous actions, the stronger they become.315 Therefore, during the eon of the universe’s dissolution, even if there are sesame seeds, no sesame oil can be produced; even if there is sugarcane, no sugarcane juice can be produced; even if there is sugarcane juice, no sugarcane molasses and no sugar can be produced; even if one has a cow, it will not produce any milk; [F.292.b] and even if one has milk, no butter will be produced.316 In this way, as an effect of the karmic ripening of the ten nonvirtuous actions, external things will deteriorate.317
“Through the karmic ripening of giving up stealing, no mice and worms will appear, and no hail and no famines, and so forth, will occur.
“Through the karmic ripening of giving up sexual misconduct, no deposit of dirt and dust, no wind, and no torrential rains will occur.
“Through the karmic ripening of giving up harsh speech, one’s feet will not come into contact with pebbles, gravel, and potsherds.
“Through the karmic ripening of giving up trivial talk, no thickets of grass, impenetrable forests, or thickets of thorns will appear.
“Through the karmic ripening of giving up covetousness, field crops and so forth will always bear fruit.
“Through the karmic ripening of giving up ill will, harvests will be abundant, and the fruits and seeds will not be bitter and pungent.
“Through the karmic ripening of giving up wrong views, one will not get seeds that produce no or only very small fruits. By way of properly engaging in these ten virtuous courses of action, the ten external kinds of things will flourish.
322“Now, regarding killing, one should know that ten evil consequences will ensue. What are the ten? One will have many enemies; one will see [F.293.a] repugnant things; one will have immoral thoughts that will lead to the destruction of living beings; one will sleep feeling uneasy;323 one will wake up feeling uneasy; one will have bad dreams; at the time of one’s death one’s mind will be clouded; one will feel remorse; one will do and accumulate actions that lead to a short lifespan; and after one has died,324 one will fall into the lower realms of existence, into evil destinies—one will be reborn in the hell realms.
“Regarding stealing, one should know that there are ten evil consequences. What are the ten? One will receive enmity; one will have qualms; one will wander about at inappropriate times, for instance at nighttime; one will associate with bad friends; one will be abandoned by good friends; one’s ethics will be faulty; one will receive harm through regal punishment; one will receive harm through penalty; one will do and accumulate actions that lead to being bereft of one’s wealth; and after one has died, one will fall into the lower realms of existence, into evil destinies—one will be reborn in the hell realms.
“Regarding sexual misconduct, one should know that there are ten evil consequences. What are the ten? Those who sleep with others’ wives will likely be attacked by Māra; there will be quarreling with one’s partner;325 one’s nonvirtuous characteristics will increase; one’s virtuous characteristics will starkly diminish, and eventually they will be lost completely; one will be unable to hide and to protect oneself, one’s children,326 one’s wife, or one’s wealth; one will have pangs of conscience; one will not be trusted by one’s close friends, family members,327 paternal relatives,328 or maternal relatives;329 one will do and accumulate actions that will lead to committing adultery and the like; and after one has died, one will fall into the lower realms of existence, into evil destinies—one will be reborn in the hell realms.
“Regarding lying, one should know that there are ten evil consequences. What are the ten? One will have bad breath; [F.293.b] the deities will leave one’s body;330 nonhuman beings will seek an opportunity to harm; even when one speaks the truth, as a liar one will not be trusted; one will speak even more lies; in matters that one must accept on faith, one will not think it necessary to consult the experts; one will praise, extol, and voice untruth; poetry will be nonexistent; one’s words will not be received sympathetically;331 one will do and accumulate the action of slandering; and after one has died, one will fall into the lower realms of existence, into evil destinies—one will be reborn in the hell realms.
“Regarding the loss of mindfulness induced by drinking beer made from fermented barley and other intoxicating liquors,332 thirty-six evil consequences should be known. What are the thirty-six? In this lifetime one’s wealth will be lost; one will become a ground for disease; quarrels, fights, and conflicts will increase; one will expose oneself; one will disgrace oneself; one’s intelligence will deteriorate; one will not obtain new possessions; one will completely lose the possessions that one has acquired; one will preach secrets in public; one will fail in carrying out one’s duties; one will become a source of suffering for others; one will become weak; one will have disrespect toward one’s mother; one will have disrespect toward one’s father; one will have disrespect toward śramaṇas;333 one will have disrespect toward brāhmaṇas; one will pay no respect to the head of the family; one will have no reverence toward the Buddha; one will have no reverence toward the Dharma; one will have no reverence toward the Saṅgha; one will be associated with bad friends; one will be completely abandoned by virtuous friends; one will become shameless; one will become immodest; one will become someone who has no self-control;334 one’s mindfulness with regard to women will fail;335 one will appear unattractive to many; one will be in disharmony with many people; [F.294.a] one will be loathed by one’s paternal and maternal relatives and the noble ones; one will ardently embrace what is not the true Dharma; one ardently abandons the true Dharma; one will not want to pay attention to the experts; one will indolent regarding what one should be careful about; one will be far away from nirvāṇa; one will do and accumulate actions that lead to intoxication; and after one has died, one will fall into the lower realms of existence, into evil destinies—one will be reborn in the hell realms.
336“There are ten337 blessings of paying homage at a tathāgata’s stūpa with one’s palms joined in reverence.338 What are the ten? One will obtain birth in a distinguished family,339 an excellent body, and a large entourage of servants, and one will receive plentiful offerings and veneration; one will obtain extensive wealth, great erudition, great faith, an excellent fragrance, great intelligence, and great wisdom. These are the ten blessings of paying homage at a tathāgata’s stūpa with one’s palms joined in reverence.340
“There are ten blessings of prostrating341 to a tathāgata’s stūpa. What are the ten? One’s body will be pleasing and will have a color like that of gold; it will be attractive and lovely to behold; one will have a pleasant voice, and one’s words will be creditable; one will move fearlessly in an assembly; one will be dear to gods and humans; one will be a very charismatic person with considerable prestige;342 the buddha-bhagavāns, the bodhisattvas, and the Buddha’s hearers will be one’s company; one will have great prosperity; one will be reborn in heaven; and one will quickly attain complete nirvāṇa. These are the ten blessings of prostrating at a tathāgata’s stūpa.
343“There are ten blessings of sweeping at a tathāgata’s stūpa. What are the ten? One’s body will be pleasing, a pleasure to look at, and beautiful, and one will have a pleasant voice; one’s attachment, hatred, and ignorance [F.294.b] will diminish; when one walks on a path, there will be no grass, gravel, or pebbles; one will be born into a noble family; one will have great prosperity; one will be reborn in heaven; and one will quickly attain complete nirvāṇa. These are the ten blessings of sweeping at a tathāgata’s stūpa.
“There are ten blessings of offering a parasol at a tathāgata’s stūpa. What are the ten? One will be like a parasol in the world; one’s body will never be scorched by heat; one’s mind, too, will not be distressed;344 one will become a support for the world;345 one will do and accumulate actions that lead to becoming a sovereign; one will obtain the empire of a wheel-turning monarch; one will become a powerful notability; one will have great prosperity; one will be reborn in heaven; and one will quickly attain complete nirvāṇa. These are the ten blessings of offering a parasol at a tathāgata’s stūpa.
“There are ten blessings of offering a bell at a tathāgata’s stūpa. What are the ten? One’s body will be pleasing; one will have a pleasant voice; one will speak charmingly; one’s speech will become like the voice of the kalaviṅka bird; one’s words will be received sympathetically;346 one will become exceedingly happy; one will hear delightful, sublime sounds;347 one will have great prosperity; one will be reborn in heaven; one will quickly attain complete nirvāṇa. These are the ten blessings of offering a bell at a tathāgata’s stūpa.
348“There are ten blessings of offering a flag349 at a tathāgata’s stūpa. What are the ten? One will be like a victory banner in the world; one’s close friends, family members, paternal relatives, and maternal relatives will show one respect, and one will be revered, venerated, and worshiped by them; one’s glory, praise, renown, and good reputation will manifest in all directions; [F.295.a] one will have a pleasing body and will be a pleasure to look at and beautiful; in one’s future lives one will have a long lifespan, and one will stay long; one will become a powerful notability; one will be born into a noble family; one will have great prosperity; one will be reborn in heaven; and one will quickly attain complete nirvāṇa. These are the ten blessings of offering a flag at tathāgata’s stūpa.
“There are twelve350 blessings of offering garments351 at a tathāgata’s stūpa. What are the twelve? One will be beautiful and lovely to behold; one will have skin that is soft, silken, and fine; dust and dirt will be unable to stick to one’s body; one will possess fine carpets; one will possess fine clothes; one will have a conscience; one will be endowed with decorum;352 one will be delightful to look at; one will have great prosperity; one will be reborn in heaven; and one will quickly attain complete nirvāṇa. These are the twelve blessings of offering garments at a tathāgata’s stūpa.
“There are ten blessings of offering a flower at a tathāgata’s stūpa. What are the ten? One will become like a flower in the world;353 one’s sense of smell will never deteriorate;354 one’s body will never smell bad; one’s body will exude fragrance; the fine fragrance of moral discipline will pervade the cardinal and intermediate directions; worldly deities will gather and surround one;355 one will obtain all attractive qualities; one will have great prosperity; one will be reborn in heaven; and one will quickly attain complete nirvāṇa. These are the ten blessings of offering a flower at a tathāgata’s stūpa.
“There are ten blessings of offering a garland at a tathāgata’s stūpa. What are the ten? One will become garland-like in the world;356 one’s body [F.295.b] will never smell bad; the fine fragrance of moral discipline will pervade the cardinal and intermediate directions; one will always be fragrant; one will always be adorned; one’s entourage will be undivided; one will be appealing to women;357 one will enjoy vast resources; one will be reborn in heaven; and one will quickly attain complete nirvāṇa. These are the ten blessings of offering a garland at a tathāgata’s stūpa.
“There are ten blessings of offering a light at a tathāgata’s stūpa. What are the ten? One will become like a lamp in the world; one’s physical eyes will be completely purified;358 one will become clairvoyant;359 the wisdom to discriminate virtuous and nonvirtuous qualities will emerge;360 ignorance and the darkness of mental obscuration will be cleared away; the light of wisdom will dawn; even while wandering in saṃsāra, one will not be in darkness;361 one will have great prosperity; one will be reborn in heaven; and one will quickly attain complete nirvāṇa. These are the ten blessings of offering a lamp at a tathāgata’s stūpa.
“There are ten blessings of offering scented water362 at a tathāgata’s stūpa. What are the ten? One will become perfume-like in the world; one’s sense of smell will be completely purified; one’s body will never smell bad; one will always be fragrant; one’s body will be pleasing; worldly deities will gather and surround one; one will obtain all attractive qualities;363 one will have great prosperity; one will be reborn in heaven; and one will quickly attain complete nirvāṇa. These are the ten blessings of offering scented water at a tathāgata’s stūpa.
364“There are ten blessings of offering music and cymbals at a tathāgata’s stūpa. What are the ten? [F.296.a] One’s body will be pleasing and lovely to behold; one will have a pleasant voice; one’s speech will be charming; one will be famous; one’s words will be creditable; one will always be joyful; one will obtain an exalted voice that pleases all; one will have great prosperity; one will be reborn in heaven; and one will quickly attain complete nirvāṇa. These are the ten blessings of offering music and cymbals at a tathāgata’s stūpa.
365“There are eighteen blessings of erecting366 a tathāgata stūpa. What are the eighteen? One will be born in a noble family; one’s body will be pleasing; it will be beautiful and a feast for the eyes;367 one will become a powerful notability; one will have a very large retinue; one’s entourage will be undivided; one will have great prosperity; worldly deities will gather and surround one; one will become a support for all; one’s glory, renown, and good reputation will spread throughout the ten directions; one will be celebrated by gods and humans; one will possess great riches and wealth; one will obtain the empire of a wheel-turning monarch; one’s lifespan will be long; one will have an adamantine body; one will be endowed with the major and minor physical marks; one will be reborn in heaven; and one will quickly attain complete nirvāṇa. These are the eighteen blessings of erecting a tathāgata stūpa.
“What are the ten blessings of offering a cushioned seat? One will enter a high rank in the world; one will become praiseworthy; one’s glory, praise, renown, and good reputation will spread far and wide; one will have much happiness and satisfaction of mind; one will be furnished with a carriage, a cushioned seat, [F.296.b] and servants;368 worldly deities will gather and surround one; one will have great prosperity; one will become a powerful notability; one will be reborn in heaven; and one will quickly attain complete nirvāṇa. These are the ten blessings of offering a cushioned seat.
“What are the ten blessings of offering shoes? One will never lack a carriage; one’s legs will be well formed; one will persevere when traveling on a road; one’s body will not get tired; when walking, one’s feet will not be injured by thorns, gravel, or rocks; one will obtain magical powers; one will have servants; one will have great prosperity; one will be reborn in heaven; and one will quickly attain complete nirvāṇa. These are the ten blessings of offering shoes.
“What are the ten blessings of offering a bowl? One will become like a container for all good qualities of the world; one’s complexion will be radiant; one’s mindstream will be supple; one will not suffer thirst; if thirsty, water will appear; one will not be reborn among the ghosts; one will be dear to gods and humans; one will have great prosperity; one will be reborn in heaven; and one will quickly attain complete nirvāṇa. These are the ten blessings of offering a bowl.
“What are the ten blessings of offering food? One will have a long life; one will have a beautiful appearance;369 one will be powerful; one will possess good memory and will be quick witted; one will move intrepidly in an assembly; one will easily sway the assembly in one’s favor;370 one will be dear to gods and humans; one will have great prosperity; one will be reborn in heaven; and one will quickly attain complete nirvāṇa. These are the ten blessings of offering food. [F.297.a]
“What are the ten blessings371 of offering a vehicle? One’s feet will always be youthful; one will be surefooted;372 when walking, the body will not get tired; one will be happy; one will not have many enemies; one will obtain the excellent four bases of magic powers; one will never be short of a means of transportation; one will have servants; one will be reborn in heaven; and one will quickly attain complete nirvāṇa. These are the ten blessings of offering a vehicle.
373“The blessings of giving shelter374 are many. What are they? The one who gives shelter will be fearless; one will obtain very soft mats and clothes; and one will obtain the five objects of sensual pleasures of gods and humans. If someone should wish, ‘May I be born into a family of a great and exalted royal lineage,’ or ‘May I be born into a family of a great and exalted brahmin lineage,’ or ‘May I be born into a family of a great and exalted householder lineage,’ then this wish will be fulfilled. Should one wish, ‘May I become the chief of a village,’ or ‘May I become the chief of a town,’ or ‘May I become the chief of a large city,’ or ‘May I become chieftain of a remote border-city,’ or ‘May I become ruler of a vassal kingdom,’ or ‘May I become a powerful monarch,’375 then this wish will be fulfilled accordingly. Should one wish, ‘May I become the sovereign of one continent,’ or ‘May I become the sovereign of two continents,’ or ‘May I become the sovereign of three continents,’ or ‘May I become a wheel-turning monarch,’376 then one’s wish will be fulfilled. 377Should one wish, ‘May I be born having equal status with the devas belonging to the retinue of the Four Great Kings,’ then this wish will be fulfilled. Or, the wish ‘May I be born having equal status with the devas of the Heaven of the Thirty-Three, the devas of the Yāma class, the devas of the Heaven of Joy, the devas of the Heaven of Delighting in Emanations, and the devas of the Heaven of Mastery over Others’ Emanations’ [F.297.b] will be fulfilled. Should one wish, ‘May I be born having equal status with devas belonging to Brahmā’s Retinue,’378 then this wish will be fulfilled. Or, the wish ‘May I be born having equal status with the devas of the heavens called Brahmā’s Ministers, Great Brahmās, Limited Radiance, Boundless Radiance, Luminous Radiance, Limited Virtue, Boundless Virtue, Perfect Virtue, Cloudless, Abundance of Merit, Great Fruit, None Greater, Sorrowless, Beautiful, Delightful Appearance, and those of the Highest Heaven” will be fulfilled. Should one wish, ‘May I be born having equal status with the devas belonging to the Sphere of Infinity of Space, the Sphere of Infinity of Consciousness, the Sphere of Nothingness,379 and the Sphere of Neither Perception nor Nonperception,’ then this wish will be fulfilled. Should one wish, ‘May I attain the fruit of becoming a stream enterer,’ then this wish will be fulfilled. Should one wish, ‘May I attain the fruit of becoming a once-returner, a non-returner, and an arhat, and may I attain the awakening of a pratyekabuddha,’380 then this wish will be fulfilled. Should one wish, ‘May I completely awaken to the unsurpassed completely perfect awakening,’ then this wish will be fulfilled. These are the many blessings of offering shelter.
“What are the ten blessings of offering a beverage? All one’s sense faculties will be complete; one will have a bright forehead,381 and one’s face will be as if always smiling;382 one will be endowed with merit; one’s mindstream will be supple; one will not suffer thirst; even when thirsty, water will appear; one will not be reborn as a ghost; one will have great prosperity; one will be reborn in heaven; and one will quickly attain complete nirvāṇa. These are the ten blessings of offering a beverage.
“What are the ten blessings383 of monastic renunciation? [F.298.a] The one who renounces will not hanker after offspring, a spouse, or riches; one will not be in the grip of desire; one will delight in living in a forest as a recluse; one will be devoted to the Buddha; one will avoid the realm of Māra;384 one will thoroughly strive for those qualities that cause one to obtain the happy, higher realms of existence and avoid those qualities that cause one to fall into the lower realms of existence; one will desire nothing, either from gods or from humans;385 one will always become a nun or monk in the Buddha’s teaching; one will be reborn in heaven; and one will quickly attain complete nirvāṇa. These are the ten blessings of monastic renunciation.
“What are the ten blessings of retreating to the forest life?386 One will leave behind society;387 one will resort to388 strict seclusion; one’s mind will focus on contemplation;389 one will aspire to the state of the buddha-bhagavāns; joy, happiness and gladness will arise in the body; obstacles will not occur; one will develop full understanding of the meaning of the Dharma as one has received it; one will reach calm abiding; and one will reach insight.390 These are the ten blessings of retreating to the forest life.
“What are the ten blessings of living on alms?391 One will become accustomed to walking; one will become familiar with one’s alms round; one’s arrogance will be cut off; one applies oneself purposefully for one’s gain; one will firmly establish others in virtue; one will elucidate392 the teachings of the Buddha; one will make them shine for future generations;393 one will not cause harm394 for one’s companions in the holy life; one will establish a humble attitude; and for the well-disciplined ascetic, alms will manifest without obstruction.395
“What are the ten blessings of the ten kinds of confidence? With confidence one enters a village; with confidence one leaves the village; [F.298.b] with confidence one enters into homes;396 with confidence one teaches the Dharma in an assembly; with confidence one appears among the saṅgha; with confidence one approaches one’s preceptor and teacher; with confidence one approaches397 one’s disciples with kind thoughts; with confidence one uses one’s permitted possessions: robes, begging bowl, bedding, and medicine to cure illnesses; with confidence one loudly performs one’s recitations;398 and with confidence one passes away at the time of death.399
“Brahmin youth, it is like this: beings are owners of their own actions, they originate from their actions, they are heirs of their actions, and they take action as their refuge. Beings are divided into high, middle, and low by their actions. From now on, honor what I have said!”
When the Buddha had finished this discourse on Dharma, the brahmin youth Śuka developed faith in the Bhagavān and said, “Gautama, when you intend to go to the houses of other lay people in Śrāvastī, I beg you to consider also going to the house of my father, the brahmin Taudeya.400 This will lead to happiness and benefit in the house of the brahmin Taudeya for a long time.” By remaining silent, the Bhagavān consented to the brahmin youth Śuka’s request. Then, when the brahmin youth Śuka recognized that the Bhagavān had consented through silence, he was delighted about the Bhagavān’s teachings. Having rejoiced, he departed from the Bhagavān.
“The Exposition of Karma” is complete.
|AKK||Abhidharmakośakārikā of Vasubandhu, as included in the commentary (bhāṣya), the Abhidh-k-bh(P)|
|AN||Anguttara-Nikaya of the Sutta-Pitaka|
|Abhidh-k-bh||Abhidharmakośabhāṣyam of Vasubandhu in Abhidh-k-bh(P)|
|Abhidh-k-bh(P)||Pradhan and Haldar, eds., Abhidharmakośabhāṣyam|
|Apte||Apte, The Practical Sanskrit–English Dictionary|
|BHSD||Edgerton, Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary|
|DN||Digha-Nikaya of the Sutta-Pitaka|
|DPPN||Malalasekera, Dictionary of Pāli Proper Names|
|Dhp||von Hinüber and Norman, eds., Dhammapada|
|MS[A]||Kudo, The Karmavibhaṅga, manuscript MS[A] edition in Kudo 2004|
|MS[B]||Kudo, The Karmavibhaṅga, manuscript MS[B] edition in Kudo 2004|
|MS[C]||Kudo, The Karmavibhaṅga, manuscript MS[C] edition in Kudo 2004|
|MW||Monier-Williams, A Sanskrit-English Dictionary|
|Mvy||“Mahāvyutpatti with sGra sbyor bam po gnyis pa” (Braarvig, ed.)|
|Negi||Negi, Tibetan–Sanskrit Dictionary|
|PED||Rhys Davids and Stede, Pali–English Dictionary|
|Uv||Bernhard, ed., Udānavarga|
|pw||Otto von Böhtlingk, Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung|
|C||Choné printed Kangyur|
|D||Degé (par phud) printed Kangyur|
|H||Lhasa (lha sa/zhol) printed Kangyur|
|J||Lithang (li thang/’jang sa tham) printed Kangyur|
|KQ||Peking printed Kangyur (1737, emperor Qianlong)|
|KY||Yongle printed Kangyur|
|N||Narthang printed Kangyur|
|S||Stok Palace manuscript Kangyur|
|U||Urga printed Kangyur|
|Z||Shey Palace manuscript Kangyur (Ladakh)|
Apart from S and Z, all variant readings are cited from the comparative table of variant readings (bsdur mchan) of the Comparative Edition of the Kangyur
/mel tse byed la mtshan mo ring / /lam gyis dub la rgyang grags ring /
/dam chos rnam par mi shes pa’i/ /byis pa rnams la ’khor ba ring /
Some are cast into iron kettles,
Head down like the ingredients of rice soup.
las rnam ’byed (Karmavibhaṅga). Toh 338, Degé Kangyur vol. 72 (mdo sde, sa), folios 277.a–298.b.
las rnam par ’byed pa. bka’ ’gyur (dpe bsdur ma) [Comparative Edition of the Kangyur], krung go’i bod rig pa zhib ’jug ste gnas kyi bka’ bstan dpe sdur khang (The Tibetan Tripitaka Collation Bureau of the China Tibetology Research Center). 108 volumes. Beijing: krung go’i bod rig pa dpe skrun khang (China Tibetology Publishing House), 2006–9, vol. 72, pp. 808–59.
las rnam par ’byed pa. S287, Stok Palace Kangyur vol. 86 (mdo sde, ci), folios 358.a–385.a.
Pelliot tibétain 944. Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris. Accessed through The International Dunhuang Project: The Silk Road Online.
rgya cher rol pa (Lalitavistara). Toh 95, Degé Kangyur vol. 46 (mdo sde, kha), folios 1.b–216.b. English translation in Dharmachakra Translation Committee 2013.
ched du brjod pa’i tshoms (Udānavarga). Toh 326, Degé Kangyur vol. 71 (mdo sde, sa), folios 209.a–253.a.
tshe ’pho ba ji ltar ’gyur ba zhus pa (Āyuṣpattiyathākāraparipṛcchā). Toh 308, Degé Kangyur vol. 72 (mdo sde, sa), folios 145.b–155.a. English translation in Tillemans 2019.
tshe’i mtha’ (Āyuḥparyanta). Toh 307, Degé Kangyur vol. 72 (mdo sde, sa), folios 139.a–145.b. English translation in Galasek-Hul and Lama Kunga Thartse Rinpoche 2021b.
dam pa’i chos dran pa nye bar gzhag pa (Saddharmasmṛtyupasthāna). Toh 287, Degé Kangyur vols. 68 (mdo sde ya), folios 82.a–318.a; vol. 69 (mdo sde, ra), folios 1.b.–307.b; vol. 70 (mdo sde, la), folios 1.b–312.a; vol. 71 (mdo sde, sha), folios 1.b–229.b. English translation in Dharmacakra Translation Committee 2021.
byams pas zhus pa (Maitreyaparipṛcchā). Toh 85, Degé Kangyur vol. 44 (dkon brtsegs, cha), folios 104.b–116.b. English translation in Liljenberg 2016.
las kyi rnam par ’gyur ba (Karmavibhaṅga). Toh 339, Degé Kangyur vol. 72 (mdo sde, sa), folios 289.b–310.a. English translation in Galasek-Hul and Lama Kunga Thartse Rinpoche 2021a.
las brgya tham pa (Karmaśataka). Toh 340, Degé Kangyur vols. 73–73 (mdo sde, ha–a), folios 1.b (ha)–128.b (a). English translation in Jamspal and Fischer 2020.
sher phyin khri brgyad stong pa (Aṣṭādaśasāhasrikāprajñāpāramitā). Toh 10, Degé Kangyur vol. 29–31 (shes phyin, ka–ga), folios 1.a (ka)–206.a (ga). English translation in Sparham 2022.
Vasubandhu. chos mngon pa’i mdzod kyi tshig le’ur byas pa (Abhidharmakośakārikā). Toh 4089, Degé Tengyur vol. 140 (mngon pa, ku), folios 1.b–25.a.
———. chos mngon pa’i mdzod kyi bshad pa (Abhidharmakośabhāṣya). Toh 4090, Degé Tengyur vol. 140–41 (mngon pa, ku–khu), folios 26.b (ku)–258.a (khu).
Choné Lama Drakpa Shedrup (co ne bla ma grags pa bshad sgrub). las rnam par ’byed pa’i mdo sogs dang tshe mtha’i don bsdus nas bkod pa. In gsung ’bum/ grags pa bshad sgrub, 9:298–316. Beijing: krung go’i bod rig pa dpe skrun khang, 2009. BDRC MW1PD90129.
Jamgön Kongtrül Lodrö Thayé (’jam mgon kong sprul blo gros mtha’ yas). man ngag lta ba’i phreng ba’i tshig don gyi ’grel zin mdor bsdus pa zab don pad tshal ’byed pa’i nyi ’od [Light of the Sun]. In gdams ngag rin po che’i mdzod [The Treasury of Spiritual Instructions], vol. 1, folios 1.a–28.b. Delhi: Shechen Publications 1999. BDRC W23605.
Patrul Orgyan Jigme Chökyi Wangpo (dpal sprul o rgyan ’jigs med chos kyi dbang po). rdzogs pa chen po klong chen snying tig gi sngon ’gro’i khrid yig kun bzang bla ma’i zhal lung. In dpal sprul bka’ ’bum, vol. 5, pp. 1–565 (F.1.a–282.a). Reproduction of Lhasa xylographs. Gangtok: Kazi, Sonam T. (Ngagyur Nyingmay Sungrab series), 1970–71. BDRC W5832.
Anguttara-Nikaya of the Sutta-Pitaka: Part III, Pancakanipata, Chakkanipata. GRETIL edition input by the Dhammakaya Foundation, 1989–96, based on the edition by E. Hardy: The Anguttara-Nikāya. Vol. 3, Pañcaka-Nipata and Chakka-Nipāta. London: Pali Text Society, 1976. Version September 4, 2014.
Bernhard, Franz, ed. Udānavarga. 2 vol. Sanskrittexte Aus den Turfanfunden 10. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1965.
Digha-Nikaya of the Sutta-Pitaka. GRETIL edition input by the Dhammakaya Foundation, 1989–96, based on the edition by T.W. Rhys Davids and J.E. Carpenter, London: Pali Text Society, 1903. Versions September 26, 2014 and October 2, 2014.
Hinüber, Oskar von, and Kenneth Roy Norman, eds. Dhammapada. Oxford: Pali Text Society, 1995.
Kudo, Noriyuki. The Karmavibhaṅga: Transliterations and Annotations of the Original Sanskrit Manuscripts from Nepal. Bibliotheca Philologica et Philosophica Buddhica 7. Tokyo: The International Research Institute for Advanced Buddhology, Soka University, 2004.
Majjhima-Nikaya of the Sutta-Pitaka. GRETIL edition input by the Dhammakaya Foundation, 1989–96. Suttantas 1–76 based on Vol. I, ed. by V. Trenckner, London: Pali Text Society 1888; Vol. II, Majjhima-Nikaya, Suttantas 77–106, ed. by R. Chalmers, London: Pali Text Society, 1896; Suttantas 107–152, based on Vol. III, ed. by R. Chalmers, London: Pali Text Society 1899. Version November 6, 2014.
Matsumura, Hisashi. “Ayuḥparyantasūtra: Das Sūtra von der Lebensdauer in den verschiedenen Welten: Text in Sanskrit und Tibetisch, nach der Gilgit-Handschrift herausgegeben.” In Sanskrit‑Texte aus dem buddhistischen Kanon: Neuentdeckungen und Neueditionen, edited by Fumio Enomoto, Jens-Uwe Hartmann, and Hisashi Matsumura, 1:69–100. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1989.
Pradhan, Prahlad, and Aruna Haldar. Abhidharmakośabhāṣyam of Vasubandhu. Tibetan Sanskrit Works Series 8. Patna: K. P. Jayaswal Research Institute, 1975.
Samyutta-Nikaya of the Sutta-Pitaka. GRETIL edition input by the Dhammakaya Foundation, Thailand, 1989-1996, based on the edition by L. Feer: The Saṃyutta-Nikâya of the Sutta-Piṭaka. Vols. 1–6. London: Henry Frowde, 1884–1904. Version September 4, 2014.
Appleton, Naomi. “The Fourth Decade of the Avadānaśataka.” Asian Literature and Translation 2, no. 5 (2014): 1–35.
Apte, Vaman Shivaram. The Practical Sanskrit–English Dictionary. Poona: Shiralkar, 1890. Electronic version at Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries. Last modified July 30, 2019.
Bareau, André. The Buddhist Schools of the Small Vehicle. Translated by Sara Boin-Webb. Edited by Andrew Skilton. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press, 2013.
Beer, Robert. The Handbook of Tibetan Buddhist Symbols. Boston: Shambhala, 2003.
Bhikkhu Ñāṇamoli, and Bhikkhu Bodhi, trans. and ed. The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha: A Translation of the Majjhima Nikāya. Fourth Edition. Boston: Wisdom Publications, 2009.
Böhtlingk, Otto von. Nachträge zum Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung von Otto Böhtlingk. 7 vols. Edited by Richard Smith. Leipzig: O. Harrassowitz, 1928. Electronic version at Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries. Last accessed October 1, 2018.
Braarvig, Jens, ed. “Mahāvyutpatti with sGra sbyor bam po gñis pa.” Bibliotheca Polyglotta, University of Oslo. Accessed September 7, 2022.
Bronkhorst, Johannes. “A Note on Śramaṇas and Brāhmaṇas.” In Festschrift in Honor of Boris Oguibénine, edited by Guillaume Ducoeur, Victoria Grace, and Nataliya Yanchevskaya. Cambridge, MA: Department of Sanskrit and Indian Studies, Harvard University, forthcoming. Available online at Academia.edu. Accessed April 27, 2020.
Buswell, Robert E., Jr., and Donald S. Lopez, Jr. The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2014.
Ch’en, Kenneth K. S. Buddhism in China: A Historical Survey. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1964.
Conze, Edward, trans. The Perfection of Wisdom in Eight Thousand Lines and Its Verse Summary. Bolinas, CA: Four Seasons Foundation, 1975.
Cousins, Lance S. “Good or Skilful? Kusala in Canon and Commentary.” Journal of Buddhist Ethics 3 (1996): 136–64.
Dharmachakra Translation Committee, trans. (2013). The Play in Full (Lalitavistara, Toh 95). 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha, 2013.
———, trans. (2021). The Application of Mindfulness of the Sacred Dharma (Saddharmasmṛtyupasthāna, Toh 287). 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha, 2021.
Drewes, David. “Revisiting the Phrase ‘sa pṛthivīpradeśaś caityabhūto bhavet’ and the Mahāyāna Cult of the Book.” Indo-Iranian Journal 50 (2007): 101–43.
Edgerton, Franklin. Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary. Vol. 2, Dictionary. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1953. Electronic version at Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries. Last modified July 30, 2019.
Falk, Harry. Schrift im alten Indien: Ein Forschungsbericht mit Anmerkungen. Tübingen: Gunter Narr, 1993.
Feer, Léon. Fragments Extraits du Kandjour. Annales du Musée Guimet 5. Paris: E. Leroux, 1883.
Galasek-Hul, Bruno, and Lama Kunga Thartse Rinpoche, trans. (2021a). Transformation of Karma (Karmavibhaṅga, Toh 339). 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha, 2021.
———, trans. (2021b). The Limits of Life (Āyuḥparyanta, Toh 307). 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha, 2021.
Gombrich, Richard. What the Buddha Thought. London: Equinox, 2009.
Guenther, Herbert V., trans. The Jewel Ornament of Liberation. Boston: Shambhala, 1986.
Hahn, Michael, ed. Haribhaṭṭa in Nepal: Ten Legends from His Jātakamālā and the Anonymous Śākyasiṃhajātaka. Studia Philologica Buddhica 22. Tokyo: International Institute for Buddhist Studies, 2007.
Halbfass, Wilhelm. Karma und Wiedergeburt im indischen Denken. Kreuzlingen: Diederichs, 2000.
Hoernle, A. F. Rudolf. Manuscript Remains of Buddhist Literature Found in Eastern Turkestan: Facsimiles with Transcripts, Translations and Notes. Vol. 1. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1916.
Jacobi, Hermann, and Walter Ruben, eds. Triṃśikāvijñapti des Vasubandhu mit Bhāṣya des Ācārya Sthiramati. Stuttgart: Kohlmammer, 1932.
Jäschke, H. A. A Tibetan–English Dictionary. London: Routledge & Kegan, 1972.
Jamspal, Dr. Lozang, and Kaia Fischer, trans. The Hundred Deeds (Karmaśataka, Toh 340). 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha, 2020.
Karashima, Seishi. “Indian Folk Etymologies and Their Reflections in Chinese Translations—brāhmaṇa, śramaṇa and Vaiśramaṇa.” Annual Report of The International Research Institute for Advanced Buddhology at Soka University 19 (March 2016): 101–23.
Khenpo Könchok Gyaltsen and Trinlay Chödron, trans. The Jewel Ornament of Liberation: The Wish-Fulfilling Gem of the Noble Teachings. Ithaca, NY: Snow Lion, 1998.
Klaus, Konrad. Das Maitrakanyakāvadāna (Divyāvadāna 38): Sanskrittext und deutsche Übersetzung. Bonn: Indica et tibetica, 1983.
Laddu, S. D. “Śramaṇa vis-à-vis Brāhmaṇa in Early History.” Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute 72/73, no. 1/4 (1991): 719–36.
La Vallée Poussin, Louis de, and Leo M. Pruden, trans. Abhidharmakośabhāṣyam of Vasubandhu. 4 vols. Berkeley: Asian Humanities Press, 1988–90.
Lévi, Sylvain (1932). Mahakarmavibhaṅga (La grande classification des actes) et Karmavibhangopadeśa (Discussion sur le Mahā Karmavibhanga). Paris: Librarie Ernest Leroux, 1932.
———(1933). Fragments de textes koutchéens: Udānavarga, Udānastotra, Udānālaṁkāra et Karmavibhaṅga. Cahiers de la Société asiatique 1.2. Paris: Imperimerie nationale, 1933.
Liljenberg, Karen, trans. The Question of Maitreya (1) (Maitreyaparipṛcchā, Toh 85). 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha, 2016.
Lokesh Chandra. Buddhism: Aesthetics, Time and Quintessence. Śata-piṭaka Series 628. New Delhi: International Academy of Indian Culture, 2010.
Maggi, Mauro. The Khotanese Karmavibhaṅga. Serie Orientale Roma 74. Rome: Istituto italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente, 1995.
Malalasekera, G. P. Dictionary of Pāli Proper Names. 2 vols. London: John Murray, 1937–38.
Martin, Dan. “Tibetan Vocabulary.” Christian Steinert’s Tibetan–English Dictionary. Version April 14, 2003.
Master, Alfred. “Indo-Aryan and Dravidian.” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 11, no. 2 (1944): 297–307.
Mayrhofer, Manfred. Kurzgefasstes etymologisches Wörterbuch des Altindischen. Vol. 3. Heidelberg: C. Winter, 1976.
McDermott, James P. “The Kathāvatthu Kamma Debates.” Journal of the American Oriental Society 95, no. 3 (Jul–Sep 1975): 424–33.
McKeown, Arthur P., trans. and ed. Rolf Stein’s Tibetica Antiqua: With Additional Materials. Brill’s Tibetan Studies Library 24. Leiden: Brill, 2010.
Meulenbeld, G. J., trans. The Mādhavanidāna and Its Chief Commentary, Chapters 1–10. Orientalia Rheno-Traiectina 19. Leiden: Brill, 1974.
Monier-Williams, Monier. A Sanskrit-English dictionary: Etymologically and philologically arranged with special reference to Cognate indo-european languages. Oxford, The Clarendon Press, 1899. Electronic version at Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries, version 2.0.738. Last modified July 30, 2019.
Müller, F. Max, and H. Wenzel, eds. The Dharma-Samgraha: An Ancient Collection of Buddhist Technical Terms. Prepared for publication by Kenjiu Kasawara. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1885.
Negi, J. S. Tibetan–Sanskrit Dictionary (bod skad dang legs sbyar gyi tshig mdzod chen mo). 16 vols. Sarnath: Central Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies, 1993–2005.
Norman, K. R., trans. The Group of Discourses (Sutta-Nipāta). 2nd ed. Oxford: Pali Text Society, 2001. First published 1992.
Patkar, M. M. “Studies in Sanskrit Lexicography: 1 Geographical Data in Sanskrit Lexicons.” Bulletin of the Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute 14, no. 4 (March 1953): 249–305.
Patrul Rinpoche, tr. Padmakara Translation Group. The Words of My Perfect Teacher. First Edition, London: HarperCollins, 1994. Second Edition, Walnut Creek: Sage-Altamira, 1998. Reprinted, New Haven: Yale University Press, 2010.
Rhys Davids, T. W., and William Stede. The Pali Text Society’s Pali–English Dictionary. London: Pali Text Society, 1921–25.
Rosenberg, Friedrich. “Deux fragments sogdien-bouddhiques du Ts’ien-fo-tong de Touen-houang (Mission S. d’Oldenburg 1914–1915). II. Fragment d’un Sūtra. 1.” Bulletin de l’Académie des Sciences de Russie, 6th ser., vol. 14 (1920): 399–420.
Samuel, Geoffrey. Civilized Shamans: Buddhism in Tibetan Societies. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1993.
Sieg, Emil. “Die Kutschischen Karmavibhaṅga-Texte der Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris.” Zeitschrift für vergleichende Sprachforschung auf dem Gebiete der Indogermanischen Sprachen 65, no 1/2 (1938): 1–54.
Simon, Walter. “A Note on the Tibetan Version of the Karmavibhaṅga Preserved in the MS Kanjur of the British Museum.” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 33, no. 1 (1970): 161–66.
Sparham, Gareth, trans. The Perfection of Wisdom in Eighteen Thousand Lines (Aṣṭādaśasāhasrikāprajñāpāramitā, Toh 10). 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha, 2022.
Tillemans, Tom, trans. Questions Regarding Death and Transmigration (Āyuṣpattiyathākāraparipṛcchā, Toh 308). 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha, 2019.
Timme Kragh, Ulrich. Early Buddhist Theories of Action and Result: A Study of Karmaphalasaṃbhandha; Candrakīrti’s Prasannapadā, Verses 17.1–20. Wiener Studien zur Tibetologie und Buddhismuskunde 64. Vienna: Arbeitskreis für Tibetische und Buddhistische Studien Universität Wien, 2006.
Wogihara, Unrai, ed. Bodhisattvabhūmi: A Statement of Whole Course of the Bodhisattva (Being Fifteenth Section of Yogācārabhūmi). Tokyo: Sankibo Buddhist Bookstore, 1971. First published 1930.
Wilkens, Jens. “Die altuigurische Daśakarmapathāvadānamālā und die buddhistische Literatur Zentralasiens.” Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies 38 (2015): 245–70.
Yuyama, Akira, ed. Prajñā-pāramitā-ratna-guṇa-saṃcaya-gāthā (Sanskrit recension A). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976.
- chos mngon pa’i sde snod
Abundance of Merit
- bsod nams skyes
- slob dpon
adopt the life of a mendicant
- rab tu byung ba
- ma skyes dgra
- mgon med pa la zas byin
- khro ba
- zhe sdang ba
- zhe sdang ba’i sems
- dud ’gro’i skye gnas
- dgra bcom pa
- mngon pa’i nga rgyal
- dge sbyong
- lha ma yin
- rtogs pa brjod pa
- ser sna
- mnar med
- ba ku la
bases of magic powers
- rdzu ’phrul gyi rkang pa
- gya nom snang gi lha rnams
- ba ra na si
- ka shi
- legs pa
- bcom ldan ’das