The Root Manual of the Rites of Mañjuśrī
- Śākya Lodrö
Degé Kangyur, vol. 88 (rgyud ’bum, na), folios 88.a–334.a (in 1737 par phud printing), 105.a–351.a (in later printings)
Translated by Dharmachakra Translation Committee
under the patronage and supervision of 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha
The Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa is the largest and most important single text devoted to Mañjuśrī, the bodhisattva of wisdom. A revealed scripture, it is, by its own classification, both a Mahāyāna sūtra and a Mantrayāna kalpa (manual of rites). Because of its ritual content, it was later classified as a Kriyā tantra and assigned, based on the hierarchy of its deities, to the Tathāgata subdivision of this class. The Sanskrit text as we know it today was probably compiled throughout the eighth century ᴄᴇ and several centuries thereafter. What makes this text special is that, unlike most other Kriyā tantras, it not only describes the ritual procedures, but also explains them in terms of general Buddhist philosophy, Mahāyāna ethics, and the esoteric principles of the early Mantrayāna (later called Vajrayāna), with an emphasis on their soteriological aims.
This translation was produced by the Dharmachakra Translation Committee under the supervision of Chökyi Nyima Rinpoche. Wiesiek Mical translated the text from the Sanskrit manuscripts, prepared the Sanskrit edition, and wrote the introduction. Paul Thomas, Ryan Damron, Anna Zilman, Bruno Galasek, and Adam Krug then compared the translation draft against the Tibetan text found in the Degé and other editions of the Tibetan Kangyur. Wiesiek Mical then completed the translation by incorporating all the significant variations from the Tibetan translation either into the English translation itself or the annotations.
The translation was completed under the patronage and supervision of 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha.
The generous sponsorship of 中國宗薩寺堪布彭措郎加, which helped make the work on this translation possible, is most gratefully acknowledged.
|Skt.||Sanskrit text of the Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa as it is represented in the appendix|
|Tib.||Tibetan text of the Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa as witnessed in the Pedurma Kangyur|
|M||Martin Delhey 2008|
|Y||Jayaswal 1934 (the section containing chapter 53 from Śāstrī’s edition of the MMK corrected by Rāhula Saṅkṛtyāyana)|
|A||NAK (National Archives, Kathmandu) accession no. 5/814|
|B||NAK accession no. 3/303|
|MSS||all manuscripts (as used for any given section of text)|
|R||NAK accession no. 3/645|
|T||manuscript accession no. C-2388 (Thiruvananthapuram)|
|C||Choné (co ne) Kangyur|
|D||Degé (sde dge) Kangyur|
|H||Lhasa (lha sa/zhol) Kangyur|
|J||Lithang (li thang) Kangyur|
|K||Kangxi (khang shi) Kangyur|
|KY||Yongle (g.yung lo) Kangyur|
|N||Narthang (snar thang) Kangyur|
|TMK||Tibetan translation of the Tārāmūlakalpa (Toh 724)|
|Tib.||Tibetan translation (supported by all recensions in the Pedurma Kangyur)|
|U||Urga (phyi sog khu re) Kangyur|
|*||text illegible (in a manuscript)|
|+||text reported as illegible in S, or in Delhey’s transcript of manuscript A|
|?||text illegible (in a printed edition)|
| (square brackets)||text hard to decipher (in a manuscript)|
|]||right square bracket marks the lemma quoted from the root text|
|lac.||lacunae in the text (physical damage to the manuscript)|
|† (dagger)||text unintelligible|
|• (middle dot)||lack of sandhi or partial sandhi|
Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa. Manuscript in the National Archives, Kathmandu (Bir 157), accession no. 3/303. Microfilmed by NGMPP, reel A 136/11. Bears the title Mañjuśrījñānatantra.
Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa. Manuscript in the National Archives, Kathmandu, accession no. 5/814. Microfilmed by NGMPP, reel A 39/04.
Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa. Manuscript in the National Archives, Kathmandu (Bir 45), accession no. 3/645. Microfilmed by NGMPP, reel A 124/14.
Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa. Manuscript in the Oriental Research Institute and Manuscripts Library, Thiruvananthapuram, accession no. C-2388.
Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa. Manuscript in Tokyo University Library, no. 275 in Matsunami’s catalog (Matsunami 1965).
Śāstrī, T. Gaṇapati, ed. The Āryamañjuśrīmūlakalpa. Vols 1–3. Trivandrum Sanskrit Series 70, 76, and 84. Trivandrum: Superintendent Government Press, 1920–25.
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’jam dpal gyi rtsa ba’i rgyud (Mañjuśrīmūlatantra). Toh. 543, Degé Kangyur vol. 88 (rgyud ’bum, na), folios 105.a–351.a.
’jam dpal gyi rtsa ba’i rgyud (Mañjuśrīmūlatantra). bka’ ’gyur (dpe bsdur ma) [Comparative Edition of the Kangyur], krung go’i bod rig pa zhib ’jug ste gnas kyi bka’ bstan dpe sdur khang (The Tibetan Tripitaka Collation Bureau of the China Tibetology Research Center). 108 volumes. Beijing: krung go’i bod rig pa dpe skrun khang (China Tibetology Publishing House), 2006–2009. vol. 88, pp. 354–1051.
ral pa gyen brdzes kyi rtog pa chen po (Tārāmūlakalpa). Toh. 724, Degé Kangyur vol. 93 (rgyud ’bum, tsa), folios 205.b–311.a, continued in vol. 94 (rgyud ’bum, tsha), folios 1.b–200.a.
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Delhey, Martin. (forthcoming). Early Buddhist Tantra: New Light on the Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa from Manuscript Evidence. (forthcoming).
———(2008). Three unpublished handouts made for the First International Workshop on Early Tantra, Kathmandu, 2008, containing editions of chapters 12, 13, and 51 of the MMK, based on the NAK manuscript accession no. 5/814, reel A 39/04.
———(2012). “The Textual Sources of the Mañjuśriyamūlakalpa (Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa), With Special Reference to Its Early Nepalese Witness NGMPP A39/4.” Journal of the Nepal Research Centre Vol. XIV (2012): 55–75.
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Matsunaga, Yūkei. “On the date of the Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa.” In Tantric and Taoist Studies in Honour of R. A. Stein, edited by M. Strickmann. Vol. 3: Mélanges chinois et bouddhiques 22, 882–894. Brussels: Institut belge des hautes études chinoises, 1985.
Matsunami, Seiren. A Catalogue of the Sanskrit Manuscripts in the Tokyo University Library. Tokyo: Suzuki Research Foundation, 1965.
Mical, Wiesiek, and Paul Thomas. “Do Kriyā Tantras Have a Doctrine? — The Case of the Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa.” Unpublished manuscipt, 2017. https://ku-np.academia.edu/wiesiekmical.
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———(2021a), trans. The Stem Array (Gaṇḍavyūha, chapter 45 of the Avataṃsakasūtra, Toh 44). 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha.
———(2021b), trans. The Ten Bhūmis (Daśabhūmika, Toh 44-31). 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha.
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