The Root Manual of the Rites of Mañjuśrī
Degé Kangyur, vol. 88 (rgyud ’bum, na), folios 88.a–334.a (in 1737 par phud printing), 105.a–351.a (in later printings).
Translated by Dharmachakra Translation Committee
under the patronage and supervision of 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha
The Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa is the largest and most important single text devoted to Mañjuśrī, the bodhisattva of wisdom. A revealed scripture, it is, by its own classification, both a Mahāyāna sūtra and a Mantrayāna kalpa (manual of rites). Because of its ritual content, it was later classified as a Kriyā tantra and assigned, based on the hierarchy of its deities, to the Tathāgata subdivision of this class. The Sanskrit text as we know it today was probably compiled throughout the eighth century ᴄᴇ and several centuries thereafter. What makes this text special is that, unlike most other Kriyā tantras, it not only describes the ritual procedures, but also explains them in terms of general Buddhist philosophy, Mahāyāna ethics, and the esoteric principles of the early Mantrayāna (later called Vajrayāna), with an emphasis on their soteriological aims.
This translation was produced by the Dharmachakra Translation Committee under the supervision of Chökyi Nyima Rinpoche. Wiesiek Mical translated the text from the Sanskrit manuscripts, prepared the Sanskrit edition, and wrote the introduction. Paul Thomas, Ryan Damron, Anna Zilman, Bruno Galasek, and Adam Krug then compared the translation draft against the Tibetan text found in the Degé and other editions of the Tibetan Kangyur. Wiesiek Mical then completed the translation by incorporating all the significant variations from the Tibetan translation either into the English translation itself or the annotations.
The translation was completed under the patronage and supervision of 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha.
The generous sponsorship of 中國宗薩寺堪布彭措郎加, which helped make the work on this translation possible, is most gratefully acknowledged.
By order of the glorious ruler and renunciant king Jangchub O, this text was translated, edited, and finalized by the great Indian preceptor and spiritual teacher Kumārakalaśa and the translator Lotsawa and monk Śākya Lodrö.3394
|Skt.||Sanskrit text of the Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa as it is represented in the appendix|
|Tib.||Tibetan text of the Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa as witnessed in the Pedurma Kangyur|
|M||Martin Delhey 2008|
|Y||Jayaswal 1934 (the section containing chapter 53 from Śāstrī’s edition of the MMK corrected by Rāhula Saṅkṛtyāyana)|
|A||NAK (National Archives, Kathmandu) accession no. 5/814|
|B||NAK accession no. 3/303|
|MSS||all manuscripts (as used for any given section of text)|
|R||NAK accession no. 3/645|
|T||manuscript accession no. C-2388 (Thiruvananthapuram)|
|C||Choné (co ne) Kangyur|
|D||Degé (sde dge) Kangyur|
|H||Lhasa (lha sa/zhol) Kangyur|
|J||Lithang (li thang) Kangyur|
|K||Kangxi (khang shi) Kangyur|
|KY||Yongle (g.yung lo) Kangyur|
|N||Narthang (snar thang) Kangyur|
|TMK||Tibetan translation of the Tārāmūlakalpa (Toh 724)|
|Tib.||Tibetan translation (supported by all recensions in the Pedurma Kangyur)|
|U||Urga (phyi sog khu re) Kangyur|
|*||text illegible (in a manuscript)|
|+||text reported as illegible in S, or in Delhey’s transcript of manuscript A|
|?||text illegible (in a printed edition)|
| (square brackets)||text hard to decipher (in a manuscript)|
|]||right square bracket marks the lemma quoted from the root text|
|lac.||lacunae in the text (physical damage to the manuscript)|
|† (dagger)||text unintelligible|
|• (middle dot)||lack of sandhi or partial sandhi|
Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa. Manuscript in the National Archives, Kathmandu (Bir 157), accession no. 3/303. Microfilmed by NGMPP, reel A 136/11. Bears the title Mañjuśrījñānatantra.
Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa. Manuscript in the National Archives, Kathmandu, accession no. 5/814. Microfilmed by NGMPP, reel A 39/04.
Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa. Manuscript in the National Archives, Kathmandu (Bir 45), accession no. 3/645. Microfilmed by NGMPP, reel A 124/14.
Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa. Manuscript in the Oriental Research Institute and Manuscripts Library, Thiruvananthapuram, accession no. C-2388.
Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa. Manuscript in Tokyo University Library, no. 275 in Matsunami’s catalog (Matsunami 1965).
Śāstrī, T. Gaṇapati, ed. The Āryamañjuśrīmūlakalpa. Vols 1–3. Trivandrum Sanskrit Series 70, 76, and 84. Trivandrum: Superintendent Government Press, 1920–25.
Vaidya, P. L., ed. Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa. Mahāyānasūtrasaṃgraha, Part II. Buddhist Sanskrit Texts 18. Darbhanga: The Mithila Institute of Postgraduate Studies and Research in Sanskrit Learning, 1964.
’jam dpal gyi rtsa ba’i rgyud (Mañjuśrīmūlatantra). Toh. 543, Degé Kangyur vol. 88 (rgyud ’bum, na), folios 105.a–351.a.
’jam dpal gyi rtsa ba’i rgyud (Mañjuśrīmūlatantra). bka’ ’gyur (dpe bsdur ma) [Comparative Edition of the Kangyur], krung go’i bod rig pa zhib ’jug ste gnas kyi bka’ bstan dpe sdur khang (The Tibetan Tripitaka Collation Bureau of the China Tibetology Research Center). 108 volumes. Beijing: krung go’i bod rig pa dpe skrun khang (China Tibetology Publishing House), 2006–2009. vol. 88, pp. 354–1051.
ral pa gyen brdzes kyi rtog pa chen po (Tārāmūlakalpa). Toh. 724, Degé Kangyur vol. 93 (rgyud ’bum, tsa), folios 205.b–311.a, continued in vol. 94 (rgyud ’bum, tsha), folios 1.b–200.a.
Agrawala, V. S. “The meaning of Kumārī Dvīpa.” Sārdha-Śatābdī: Special Volume of Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bombay (June 1959): 1–5.
Bunce, Fredrick W. Mudrās in Buddhist and Hindu Practices: An Iconographic Consideration. New Delhi: D. K. Printworld, 2005.
Delhey, Martin. (forthcoming). Early Buddhist Tantra: New Light on the Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa from Manuscript Evidence. (forthcoming).
———(2008). Three unpublished handouts made for the First International Workshop on Early Tantra, Kathmandu, 2008, containing editions of chapters 12, 13, and 51 of the MMK, based on the NAK manuscript accession no. 5/814, reel A 39/04.
———(2012). “The Textual Sources of the Mañjuśriyamūlakalpa (Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa), With Special Reference to Its Early Nepalese Witness NGMPP A39/4.” Journal of the Nepal Research Centre Vol. XIV (2012): 55–75.
Dharmachakra Translation Committee, trans. The Ratnaketu Dhāraṇī (Ratnaketudhāraṇī, Toh 138). 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha, 2020.
Edgerton, Franklin. Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary. 2 vols. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1970.
Gray, David B. The Cakrasaṃvara Tantra (The Discourse of Śrī Heruka). A Study and Annotated Translation. New York: American Institute of Buddhist Studies, Columbia University, 2007.
Hartzell, James F. “The Buddhist Sanskrit Tantras: ‘The Samādhi of the Plowed Row.’ ” Pacific World: Journal of the Institute of Buddhist Studies 14 (Fall 2012): 63–178.
Jayaswal, K. P. An Imperial History of India in a Sanskrit Text (c. 700 B.C.–c. 770 A.D.) with a Special Commentary on Later Gupta Period. Lahore: Motilal Banarsidass, 1934.
Matsunaga, Yūkei. “On the date of the Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa.” In Tantric and Taoist Studies in Honour of R. A. Stein, edited by M. Strickmann. Vol. 3: Mélanges chinois et bouddhiques 22, 882–894. Brussels: Institut belge des hautes études chinoises, 1985.
Matsunami, Seiren. A Catalogue of the Sanskrit Manuscripts in the Tokyo University Library. Tokyo: Suzuki Research Foundation, 1965.
Mical, Wiesiek, and Paul Thomas. “Do Kriyā Tantras Have a Doctrine? — The Case of the Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa.” Unpublished manuscipt, 2017. https://ku-np.academia.edu/wiesiekmical.
Przyluski, Jean. “Les Vidyārāja, contribution à l’histoire de la magie dans les sectes Mahāyānistes.” Bulletin de l’École Française d’Extrême-Orient 23 (1923): 301–18.
Roberts, Peter Alan (2018), trans. The King of Samādhis Sūtra (Samādhirājasūtra, Toh 127). 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha.
———(2021a), trans. The Stem Array (Gaṇḍavyūha, chapter 45 of the Avataṃsakasūtra, Toh 44). 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha.
———(2021b), trans. The Ten Bhūmis (Daśabhūmika, Toh 44-31). 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha.
Saṅkṛtyāyana, Rāhula. “The text of the Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa, corrected with the help of the Tibetan text.” In An Imperial History of India in a Sanskrit Text (c. 700 B.C.–c. 770 A.D.) with a Special Commentary on Later Gupta Period by K. P. Jayasawal, addendum 1–75. Lahore: Motilal Banarsidass, 1934.
Wallis, G. Mediating the Power of Buddhas: Ritual in the Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2002.