འདུལ་བ། · 'dul ba/


Works focusing primarily on the monastic rules and their origins, but also containing a wealth of historical, biographical, and cultural material (Toh 1-7).

Texts: 24Published: 1In Progress: 9Not Begun: 14

Chapters on Monastic Discipline


Toh 1-1Published

The Chapter on Going Forth

རབ་ཏུ་འབྱུང་བའི་གཞི། · rab tu ’byung ba’i gzhi


“The Chapter on Going Forth” is the first of seventeen chapters in The Chapters on Monastic Discipline, a four-volume work which outlines the statutes and procedures that govern life in a Buddhist monastic community. This first chapter traces the development of the rite by which postulants were admitted into the monastic order, from Buddha Śākyamuni’s informal invitation to “Come, join me,” to the more elaborate “Present Day Rite.” Along the way, the posts of preceptor and instructor are introduced, their responsibilities defined, and a dichotomy between reliable monks and immature novices described. While the heart of the chapter is a transcript of the “Present Day Rite,” the text is interwoven with numerous narrative asides, depicting the spiritual ferment of the north Indian region of Magadha during the Buddha’s lifetime, the follies of untrained and unsupervised apprentices, and the need for a formal system of tutelage.

Title variants

  • འདུལ་བ་གཞི་ལས། རབ་ཏུ་འབྱུང་བའི་གཞི།
  • ’dul ba gzhi las/ rab tu ’byung ba’i gzhi
  • “The Chapter on Going Forth” from The Chapters on Monastic Discipline
  • Vinayavastu Pravrajyāvastu
  • 「律儀根本」之《出家根本》
Toh 1-2In progress

Chapter 2: On the Rite of Restoration

གསོ་སྦྱོང་གི་གཞི། · gso sbyong gi gzhi/


Describes the twice-monthly poṣadha ceremony performed by monks, nuns, and novices in which the ordained confess infractions against their vows, thereby purifying and restoring them.

Title variants

  • 律本事之「說戒本事」
Translation in progress
Toh 1-3In progress

Chapter 3: On the Relaxation of Restrictions

དགག་དབྱེའི་གཞི། · dgag dbye'i gzhi/


Describes the pravāraṇā ceremony in which certain restrictions adopted for the rains retreat are relaxed, marking the end of the rains retreat.

Translation in progress
Toh 1-4In progress

Chapter 4: On the Rains

དབྱར་གྱི་གཞི། · dbyar gyi gzhi/


Describes the timing and procedures for the annual rains retreat.

Translation in progress
Toh 1-5In progress

Chapter 5: On Leather

ཀོ་ལྤགས་ཀྱི་གཞི། · ko lpags kyi gzhi/


This text discusses the use of hides by members of the Buddhist monastic community for various occasions. It begins with a lengthy narrative on the life story of Śroṇa Koṭikarṇa, whose wandering in the realms of the hungry ghosts eventually led him to become an ordained Buddhist monk. Regulations on the matter of hides were first discussed when Śroṇa Koṭikarṇa, on behalf of his master Mahākātyāyana, asked the Blessed One five questions concerning the special circumstances in the region of Aśmāparāntaka. More rules were established to regulate the use of shoes and the materials that could be use to make shoes, rugs, sitting mats, as well as rules that regulate the use of tall and wide bed, issues concerning river-crossing, bathing, and the storage of tools for repairing shoes.

Translation in progress
Toh 1-6In progress

Chapter 6: On Medicinal Materials

སྨན་གྱི་གཞི། · sman gyi gzhi/


Discusses the medicines allowed to monastics, such as ghee, oil, honey, and molasses; what monastics should not consume, such as human flesh; and related subjects such as how medicine should be stored, under what circumstances monastics are allowed to cook for themselves, and how to respond to a hostile doctor.

Title variants

  • 「律儀根本」之《藥本事》
Translation in progress
Toh 1-7Not Started

Chapter 7: On the Robes

གོས་ཀྱི་གཞི། · gos kyi gzhi/
Translation not Started
Toh 1-8Not Started

Chapter 8: On Turning Cloth into Robes

སྲ་བརྐྱང་གི་གཞི། · sra brkyang gi gzhi/
Translation not Started
Toh 1-9Not Started

Chapter 9: On the Monks of Kauśāmbī

ཀཽ་ཤཱམ་བཱིའི་གཞི། · kau shAm bI'i gzhi/
Translation not Started
Toh 1-10Not Started

Chapter 10: On Formal Acts

ལས་ཀྱི་གཞི། · las kyi gzhi/
Translation not Started
Toh 1-11Not Started

Chapter 11: On a Group of Troublesome Monks

དམར་སེར་ཅན་གྱི་གཞི། · dmar ser can gyi gzhi/
Translation not Started
Toh 1-12Not Started

Chapter 12: On Types of Person

གང་ཟག་གི་གཞི། · gang zag gi gzhi/
Translation not Started
Toh 1-13Not Started

Chapter 13: On Demotions

སྤོ་བའི་གཞི། · spo ba'i gzhi/
Translation not Started
Toh 1-14Not Started

Chapter 14: On Suspending the Restoration Rites

གསོ་སྦྱོང་གཞག་པའི་གཞི། · gso sbyong gzhag pa'i gzhi/
Translation not Started
Toh 1-15Not Started

Chapter 15: On Shelter

གནས་ལམ་གྱི་གཞི། · gnas lam gyi gzhi/
Translation not Started
Toh 1-16Not Started

Chapter 16: On Disputes

རྩོད་པའི་གཞི། · rtsod pa'i gzhi/
Translation not Started
Toh 1-17In progress

Chapter 17: On Schisms in the Saṅgha

དགེ་འདུན་གྱི་དབྱེན་གྱི་གཞི། · dge 'dun gyi dbyen gyi gzhi/

Title variants

  • Saṅghabhedavastu
Translation in progress
Toh 2In progress

Sūtra of Individual Emancipation

སོ་སོར་ཐར་པའི་མདོ། · so sor thar pa'i mdo/
Translation in progress
Toh 3In progress

Detailed Explanations of Discipline

འདུལ་བ་རྣམ་འབྱེད། · 'dul ba rnam 'byed/

Title variants

  • 'dul ba rnam par 'byed pa/
Translation in progress
Toh 4Not Started

Sūtra of Individual Emancipation of Nuns

དགེ་སློང་མའི་སོ་སོར་ཐར་པའི་མདོ། · dge slong ma'i so sor thar pa'i mdo/
Translation not Started
Toh 5Not Started

Detailed Explanations on Nuns’ Discipline

དགེ་སློང་མའི་འདུལ་བ་རྣམ་པར་འབྱེད་པ། · dge slong ma'i 'dul ba rnam par 'byed pa/
Translation not Started
Toh 6In progress

Finer Points of Discipline

འདུལ་བ་ཕྲན་ཚེགས་ཀྱི་གཞི། · 'dul ba phran tshegs kyi gzhi/

Title variants

  • 根本說一切有部毘奈耶雜事
Translation in progress
Toh 7Not Started

Preeminent Account of Discipline

འདུལ་བ་གཞུང་བླ་མ། · 'dul ba gzhung bla ma/
Translation not Started
Toh 7aNot Started

Preeminent Account of Discipline

འདུལ་བ་གཞུང་དམ་པ། · 'dul ba gzhung dam pa/

Title variants

  • [Note: a variant but more complete version of the preceding text.]
Translation not Started


The texts of the Vinaya, or Discipline (’dul ba) comprise the monastic code, its history, and commentaries on it. As well as detailing all the rules to be kept by monks, nuns, male and female novices, and male and female lay practitioners, they include a wealth of history, biography, and narrative recording the circumstances under which each rule was originally introduced by the Buddha.

This section of the Kangyur corresponds approximately to the Vinayapiṭaka of the Pāli and Chinese Tripiṭakas. Since it was largely due to divergences in the details of monastic code that early Buddhist groups differentiated into various schools, the vinaya literature of each school is quite different. The Pāli vinaya is that of the Theravāda school, while translations of vinaya texts into Chinese include the more or less complete vinaya literature of five other Indian Buddhist schools.

The works in this section of the Kangyur were translated into Tibetan from the Sanskrit texts of the Mūlasarvāstivāda-vinaya, the vinaya tradition held by the first monks to bring their ordination lineage to Tibet. Vinaya texts of other schools do not seem to have been translated into Tibetan. While scholars disagree about whether there was a Mūlasarvāstivādin school as such, distinct from the Sarvāstivādin school, the Mūlasarvāstivāda-vinaya is a distinct body of literature many times longer than any other vinaya. It has survived in Tibetan, Chinese, and partially in Sanskrit in the form of manuscripts found in Gilgit. The Tibetan translations represent a more complete version than the Chinese. The Mūlasarvāstivāda-vinaya literature is notable for its historical and narrative richness and contains material duplicated in, or paralleled by, a considerable number of sūtras, avadānas, and other works and passages elsewhere in the Kangyur; it almost constitutes a canonical collection in its own right.

The seven works listed here can be divided into the four major traditional divisions of the corpus:

(1) Vinayavibhaṅga, the codified rules themselves and their commentarial texts. Toh 2 and 4 are the Prātimokṣasūtras outlining the rules for monks and nuns, respectively, and each has a detailed commentary, Toh 3 and 5, in which the incidents that gave rise to the different rules are recounted.

(2) Vinayavastu, Toh 1, a single large text containing seventeen “chapters” or topics (vastu, Tib. gzhi) each delineating a specific aspect of monastic life.

(3) Vinayakṣudrakavastu, Toh 6, a large additional “chapter” dealing with a wide range of miscellaneous topics not covered in the seventeen chapters of the Vinayavastu.

(4) Vinayottaragrantha, Toh 7, a compilation of ten or so subsections, some of which may have been independent texts, providing amplified explanations of the monastic code and its history. Two versions of the Uttaragrantha have been preserved in Tibetan translation (here numbered Toh 7 and 7A), of which the second is more complete, the first consisting only of the Questions of Upāli while the second contains the same text along with a number of others. The colophons and the catalogue of the Degé Kangyur suggest that both versions were retained because of different levels of authentication concerning their respective contents.