84000 Glossary of Terms

Our trilingual glossary combining entries from all of our publications into one useful resource, giving translations and definitions of thousands of terms, people, places, and texts from the Buddhist canon.

གནོད་སྦྱིན། | Glossary of Terms

    གནོད་སྦྱིན།

    gnod sbyin

    yakṣa

  • Term
Publications: 84

A class of semidivine beings who inhabit forests, mountainous areas, and other natural spaces, or serve as guardians of villages and towns, and may be propitiated for health, wealth, protection, and other boons. They are often depicted as holding choppers, cleavers, and swords, and are said to dwell in the north, under the jurisdiction of the Great King Vaiśravaṇa.

Translation by Fumi Yao
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A class of semidivine beings that haunt or protect natural places and cities. They can be malevolent or benevolent, and are known for bestowing wealth and worldly boons.

Translation by Gareth Sparham
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa
Translation by Gyurme Dorje
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A class of male and female spirits, depicted as holding choppers, cleavers, and swords. Inhabiting mountainous areas and sylvan groves, their name in Tibetan (gnod sbyin, “granting harm”) suggests a malign nature.

Translation by Peter Alan Roberts
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A class of supernatural beings, often represented as the attendants of the god of wealth, although the term is also applied to spirits. Although they are generally portrayed as benevolent, the Tibetan translation means “harm giver,” as they are also capable of causing harm.

Translation by Peter Alan Roberts
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A class of nonhuman beings that haunt or protect natural places and cities. They can be malevolent or benevolent, and are known for bestowing wealth and worldly boons, or alternatively, for creating obstacles and causing harm. They are often represented as the attendants of the god of wealth.

Translation by Zachary Beer
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A class of semidivine beings that haunt or protect natural places and cities. They can be malevolent or benevolent and are known for bestowing wealth and other boons.

Translation by Oriane Lavolé
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A class of semidivine beings said to dwell in the north, under the jurisdiction of the Great King Vaiśravaṇa, otherwise known as Kubera.

Translation by Benjamin Collet-Cassart
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa
Translation by Robert Kritzer
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A class of nonhuman beings that haunt or protect natural places and cities. They can be malevolent or benevolent, and are known for bestowing wealth and worldly boons, or alternatively, for creating obstacles and causing harm.

Translation by Timothy Hinkle
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A class of nonhuman beings who haunt or protect natural places and cities. They can be malevolent or benevolent, and are known for bestowing wealth and worldly boons.

Translation by Benjamin Collet-Cassart · Nika Jovic
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa
  • 夜叉

A class of mostly malevolent beings that cause harm to humans. One of the eight classes of spirits.

Translation by Klaus-Dieter Mathes · Julika Weber · Katrin Querl · Konstantin Brockhausen · Susanne Fleischmann · Daniel Gratzer · Georgi Krastev · Jamie Gordon Creek
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A class of semidivine beings said to dwell in the north, under the jurisdiction of the Great King Vaiśravaṇa. They are associated with water, fertility, and trees, and treasure, and are said to haunt or protect natural places as well as towns. Yakṣa can be malevolent or benevolent, and are known for bestowing wealth and other boons.

Translation by Catherine Dalton · Heidi Koppl · James Gentry · Cortland Dahl · Hilary Herdman · Andreas Doctor
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa
Translation by Jens Erland Braarvig
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A class of beings said to dwell in the north, under the jurisdiction of the great king Vaiśravaṇa.

Translation by Benjamin Ewing
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A class of powerful nonhuman beings that haunt or protect natural places and cities. They can be malevolent or benevolent, and are known for bestowing wealth and worldly boons.

Translation by Andreas Doctor · Zachary Beer · Thomas Doctor
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A class of semidivine beings said to dwell in the north, under the jurisdiction of the Great King Vaiśravaṇa, otherwise known as Kubera.

Translation by Mattia Salvini
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A semi-divine being.

Translation by Dr. Thomas Doctor · James Gentry
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A class of semidivine beings said to dwell in the north, under the jurisdiction of the great king Vaiśravaṇa, otherwise known as Kubera.

Translation by Tulku Sherdor · Virginia Blum
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A class of semidivine beings who inhabit forests and other natural spaces, or serve as guardians to villages and towns, and may be propitiated for health, wealth, protection, and other boons.

Translation by Gregory Forgues
  • Yakṣa
  • yakṣa

Type of being in Buddhist cosmogony.

Translation by Peter Alan Roberts
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A class of supernatural beings, often represented as the attendants of Vaiśravaṇa, the god of wealth, but the term is also applied to spirits. Although they are generally portrayed as benevolent, the Tibetan translation means “harm giver,” as they are also capable of causing harm.

Translation by Benjamin Collet-Cassart
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A class of semi-divine beings that haunt or protect natural places and cities. They can be malevolent or benevolent, and are known for bestowing wealth and worldly boons.

Translation by Peter Alan Roberts
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A class of supernatural beings, often represented as the attendants of the god of wealth, but the term is also applied to spirits. Although they are generally portrayed as benevolent, the Tibetan translation means “harm giver,” as they are also capable of causing harm.

Translation by Gyurmé Avertin
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A class of beings that haunt or protect natural places and cities. They can be malevolent or benevolent, and are known for bestowing wealth and worldly boons.

Translation by Peter Alan Roberts
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A class of supernatural beings, often represented as the attendants of the god of wealth, but the term is also applied to spirits. Although they are generally portrayed as benevolent, the Tibetan translation means “harm giver,” as they are also capable of causing harm.

Translation by Timothy Hinkle
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A class of semidivine beings said to dwell in the north, under the jurisdiction of the Great King Vaiśravaṇa, otherwise known as Kubera.

Translation by Joseph McClellan
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A class of semidivine beings said to dwell in the north, under the jurisdiction of the Great King Vaiśravaṇa, otherwise known as Kubera.

Translation by Wiesiek Mical · Timothy Hinkle
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A class of nonhuman beings.

Translation by David Jackson
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A class of semidivine beings said to dwell in the north, under the jurisdiction of the Great King Vaiśravaṇa. They are said to haunt or protect natural places and cities, can be malevolent or benevolent, and are known for bestowing wealth and other boons.

Translation by Dr. Andreas Doctor
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A class of supernatural beings said to dwell in the north, under the jurisdiction of the Great King Vaiśravaṇa. Although they are generally portrayed as benevolent, the Tibetan translation means “harm giver,” as they are also capable of causing harm.

Translation by Dr. Anne Burchardi · Tulku Dakpa Rinpoche · Dr. Ulrich Pagel
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A class of supernatural beings that are often represented as the attendants of Vaiśravaṇa, the god of wealth, but the term is also applied to spirits. Although they are generally portrayed as benevolent, the Tibetan translation means “harm giver,” as they are also capable of causing harm.

Translation by Timothy Hinkle · Ryan Damron · Dr. Andreas Doctor
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A class of nonhuman beings that haunt or protect natural places and cities. They can be malevolent or benevolent, and are known for bestowing wealth and worldly boons.

Translation by Timothy Hinkle
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A class of semidivine beings that haunt or protect natural places and cities. They can be malevolent or benevolent, and are known for bestowing wealth and worldly boons. They are associated with Kubera, the god of wealth, who is often counted as their king.

Translation by Timothy Hinkle
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A class of semidivine beings said to dwell in the north, under the jurisdiction of the Great King Vaiśravaṇa. They are said to haunt or protect natural places and cities, can be malevolent or benevolent, and are known for bestowing wealth and other boons.

Translation by Benjamin Ewing
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A class of mostly malevolent spirits.

Translation by Benjamin Collet-Cassart
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A class of beings said to dwell in the north, under the jurisdiction of the great king Vaiśravaṇa.

Translation by Gyurmé Avertin
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A class of semidivine beings said to dwell in the north, under the jurisdiction of the Great King Vaiśravaṇa, otherwise known as Kubera.

Translation by Timothy Hinkle
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A class of semi-divine beings that haunt or protect natural places and cities. They can be malevolent or benevolent, and are known for bestowing wealth and worldly boons.

Translation by Tenpa Tsering
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A class of semidivine beings that typically haunt forests and other natural places.

Translation by Ani Jinpa Palmo
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A class of semidivine beings said to dwell in the north, under the jurisdiction of the Great King Vaiśravaṇa, otherwise known as Kubera.

Translation by Rebecca Hufen · Shanshan Jia
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A class of semidivine beings who haunt or protect forests, rivers, and other natural spaces, or serve as guardians to villages and towns. They are traditionally propitiated for health, wealth, protection, and other boons.

Translation by Timothy Hinkle
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A class of semidivine beings said to dwell in the north, under the jurisdiction of the Great King Vaiśravaṇa, otherwise known as Kubera.

Translation by Jens Braarvig
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A class of beings said to dwell in the north, under the jurisdiction of the great king Vaiśravaṇa.

Translation by Robert A. F. Thurman
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A forest demon.

Translation by Timothy Hinkle
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A class of nonhuman beings that haunt or protect natural places and cities. They can be malevolent or benevolent and are known for bestowing wealth and worldly boons.

Translation by Andreas Doctor · Zachary Beer
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A class of semidivine beings said to dwell in the north, under the jurisdiction of the Great King Vaiśravaṇa. They are associated with water, trees, fertility, and treasures, and are said to haunt or protect natural places as well as towns. Yakṣas can be malevolent or benevolent, and are known for bestowing wealth and other boons.

Translation by Dr. Karen Liljenberg · Dr. Ulrich Pagel
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A class of male and female spirits, depicted as holding choppers, cleavers, and swords. Inhabiting mountainous areas and sylvan groves, their name in Tibetan (gnod sbyin, “granting harm”) suggests a malign nature.

Translation by Jamyang Choesang · Kunsang Choepel · Boyce Teoh · Solvej Nielsen
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

Yakṣas are a class of beings who assail and cause harm to humans. One of the eight classes of spirits.

Translation by Benjamin Collet-Cassart · Nika Jovic
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A class of mostly malevolent beings that cause harm to humans. One of the eight classes of spirits.

Translation by Lowell Cook
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa
  • 夜叉

A type of spirit, sometimes harmful to humans, also often represented as attendants to Vaiśravaṇa.

Translation by Zachary Beer
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A class of nonhuman beings that haunt or protect natural places and cities. They can be malevolent or benevolent, and are known for bestowing wealth and worldly boons, as well as causing harm and destruction.

Translation by David Jackson
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A class of semidivine beings said to dwell in the north, under the jurisdiction of the Great King Vaiśravaṇa. They are said to haunt or protect natural places as well as towns. Yakṣas can be malevolent or benevolent and are known for bestowing wealth and other boons.

Translation by Karen Liljenberg · Ulrich Pagel
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A class of nonhuman beings who haunt or protect natural places and cities. They can be malevolent or benevolent, and are known for bestowing wealth and worldly boons, as well as causing harm and destruction.

Translation by Joshua Capitanio
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A class of semidivine beings who inhabit forests, mountainous areas, and other natural spaces, or serve as guardians of villages and towns, and may be propitiated for health, wealth, protection, and other boons. They are often depicted as holding choppers, cleavers, and swords, and are said to dwell in the north, under the jurisdiction of the Great King Vaiśravaṇa.

Translation by Jed Forman · ErdeneBaatar Erdene-Ochir · Michael Ium
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A class of semidivine beings said to dwell in the north, under the jurisdiction of the Great King Vaiśravaṇa. They are said to haunt or protect natural places and cities, can be malevolent or benevolent, and are known for bestowing wealth and other boons. 

Translation by Timothy Hinkle · Anna Zilman · Lama Tenzin Sangpo
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A class of beings belonging to the realm of Kubera, the god of wealth.

Translation by Adam Krug
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A class of semidivine beings said to dwell in the north, under the jurisdiction of the Great King Vaiśravaṇa, otherwise known as Kubera.

Translation by Benjamin Collet-Cassart
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A class of nonhuman beings that haunt or protect natural places and cities. They can be malevolent (hence the Tibetan translation gnod sbyin, meaning “harm giver”) or benevolent and are known for bestowing wealth and worldly boons.

Translation by Jampa Tenzin · Ngawang Tenzin · Christian Bernert · Julia C. Stenzel
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A harmful spirit; literally “harm-bringer.”

Translation by Ana Cristina Lopes
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A class of supernatural beings, often represented as the attendants of the god of wealth, but the term is also applied to spirits. Although they are generally portrayed as benevolent, the Tibetan translation means “harm giver,” as they are also capable of causing harm.

Translation by Annie Bien
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A class of supernatural beings that are often represented as the attendants of the god of wealth, but the term is also applied to spirits. Although they are generally portrayed as benevolent, the Tibetan translation means “harm giver,” as they are also capable of causing harm.

Translation by Rolf Scheuermann · Casey Kemp
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

Yakṣas or harm givers. A class of mostly malevolent spirits.

Translation by Dr. Thomas Doctor · Timothy Hinkle · Benjamin Collet-Cassart
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A class of beings said to dwell in the north, under the jurisdiction of the great king Vaiśravaṇa (in this text, appears under his alternative name Kubera).

Translation by Bruno Galasek-Hul
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

Yakṣas are ambivalent nature spirits. According to Indian mythology, they inhabit trees, ponds, and other natural places, and serve as guardians of a certain locale. They possess magical powers, are shapeshifters, and can appear as helpful to and protective of the Buddha, his disciples, and the teachings. They can also be malevolent forces that create obstacles and illness.

  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A class of semidivine beings said to dwell in the north, under the jurisdiction of the Great King Vaiśravaṇa, otherwise known as Kubera.

Translation by Ruth Gamble · Tenzin Ringpapontsang
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A class of semidivine beings that haunt or protect natural places and cities. They can be malevolent or benevolent, and are known for bestowing wealth and worldly boons.

Translation by Laura Dainty
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A class of nonhuman beings that haunt or protect natural places and cities. They can be malevolent or benevolent, and are known for bestowing wealth and worldly boons, as well as causing harm and destruction.

Tantra Text Warning

Warning: Readers are reminded that according to Vajrayāna Buddhist tradition there are restrictions and commitments concerning tantra. Practitioners who are not sure if they should read this translation are advised to consult the authorities of their lineage. The responsibility for reading this text or sharing it with others who may or may not fulfill the requirements lies in the hands of readers.

Translation by Wiesiek Mical
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A class of semi-divine beings.

Tantra Text Warning

Warning: Readers are reminded that according to Vajrayāna Buddhist tradition there are restrictions and commitments concerning tantra. Practitioners who are not sure if they should read this translation are advised to consult the authorities of their lineage. The responsibility for reading this text or sharing it with others who may or may not fulfill the requirements lies in the hands of readers.

Translation by Wiesiek Mical
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A class of spirits.

Translation by Stefan Mang · Peter Woods
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A class of spirits.

Tantra Text Warning

Warning: Readers are reminded that according to Vajrayāna Buddhist tradition there are restrictions and commitments concerning tantra. Practitioners who are not sure if they should read this translation are advised to consult the authorities of their lineage. The responsibility for reading this text or sharing it with others who may or may not fulfill the requirements lies in the hands of readers.

Translation by Catherine Dalton · Andreas Doctor · Ryan Damron · Wiesiek Mical
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa
Translation by Adam Krug
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A class of spirit beings often associated with forests.

Translation by Adam Krug
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A class of spirit beings often associated with forests.

Translation by Dylan Esler
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A class of nonhuman beings who haunt or protect natural places and cities. They can be malevolent or benevolent, and are known for bestowing wealth and worldly boons, as well as for causing harm, illness, and obstacles.

Translation by Adam Krug
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A class of terrestrial beings.

Translation by Wiesiek Mical
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A class of beings belonging to the realm of Kubera, the god of wealth.

Tantra Text Warning

Warning: Readers are reminded that according to Vajrayāna Buddhist tradition there are restrictions and commitments concerning tantra. Practitioners who are not sure if they should read this translation are advised to consult the authorities of their lineage. The responsibility for reading this text or sharing it with others who may or may not fulfill the requirements lies in the hands of readers.

Translation by Wiesiek Mical
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

Class of non-human beings.

Translation by James Gentry
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa
Translation by Catherine Dalton
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa
Translation by Peter Alan Roberts
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A class of supernatural beings, often represented as the attendants of Kubera, the god of wealth, but the term is also applied to spirits. Although they are generally portrayed as benevolent, the Tibetan translation means “harm giver,” as they are also capable of causing harm.

Translation by Peter Alan Roberts
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A class of supernatural beings, often represented as the attendants of Kubera, the god of wealth, but the term is also applied to spirits. Although they are generally portrayed as benevolent, the Tibetan translation means “harm giver,” as they are also capable of causing harm.

Tantra Text Warning

Warning: Readers are reminded that according to Vajrayāna Buddhist tradition there are restrictions and commitments concerning tantra. Practitioners who are not sure if they should read this translation are advised to consult the authorities of their lineage. The responsibility for reading this text or sharing it with others who may or may not fulfill the requirements lies in the hands of readers.

Translation by Wiesiek Mical · Anna Zilman · Andreas Doctor
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • ཡཀྵ།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yak+Sha
  • yakṣa

A class of nonhuman beings.

  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa

A class of nonhuman beings.

Translation by James Gentry
  • Yakṣa
  • གནོད་སྦྱིན།
  • gnod sbyin
  • yakṣa