84000 Glossary of Terms

Our trilingual glossary combining entries from all of our publications into one useful resource, giving translations and definitions of thousands of terms, people, places, and texts from the Buddhist canon.

ནམ་མཁའ་ལྡིང་། | Glossary of Terms

    ནམ་མཁའ་ལྡིང་།

    nam mkha’ lding

    garuḍa

  • Term
Publications: 77

In Indian mythology, the garuḍa is an eagle-like sun bird that is regarded as the king of all birds, normally depicted with a sharp, owl-like beak, often holding a snake, and with large and powerful wings. They are traditionally enemies of the nāgas. In the Vedas, they are said to have brought nectar from the heavens to earth.

Translation by Fumi Yao
  • Garuḍa
  • ནམ་མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • nam mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa

A kind of semidivine bird. They are traditionally enemies of the nāgas. In the Vedas, they are said to have brought nectar from the heavens to earth.

Translation by Gareth Sparham
  • Garuḍa
  • ནམ་མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • nam mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa
Translation by Gyurme Dorje
  • Garuḍa
  • ཁྱུང་།
  • khyung
  • garuḍa

A mythical bird normally depicted with a sharp, owl-like beak, often holding a snake, and with large and powerful wings. In Buddhism, the symbolism of the garuḍa is generally‌ associated with gnosis (it is said that the garuḍa can fly as soon as it is hatched) and with the consuming of afflicted mental states (the holding of a snake in its beak).

Translation by Peter Alan Roberts
  • Garuḍa
  • ནམ་མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • nam mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa

A class of supernatural being described as an eagle-type bird with a gigantic wingspan. They are traditionally enemies of the nāgas. In the Vedas, they are thought to have brought nectar from the heavens to earth.

Translation by Peter Alan Roberts
  • Garuḍa
  • ནམ་མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • nam mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa

A class of nonhuman beings described as eagle-type birds with a gigantic wingspan. They were traditionally enemies of the nāgas. In the Vedas, they were thought to have brought nectar from the heavens to earth.

Translation by Zachary Beer
  • Garuḍa
  • ནམ་མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • nam mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa

A class of divine creatures with the bodies of giant birds.

Translation by Oriane Lavolé
  • Garuḍa
  • ནམ་མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • nam mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa

A class of divine creatures with the bodies of giant birds.

Translation by Benjamin Collet-Cassart
  • Garuḍa
  • ནམ་མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • nam mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa
Translation by Timothy Hinkle
  • Garuḍa
  • ནམ་མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • nam mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa

A class of nonhuman beings who have the form of eagle-type birds with gigantic wingspans. They are traditionally considered enemies of the nāgas.

Translation by Benjamin Collet-Cassart · Nika Jovic
  • Garuḍa
  • ནམ་མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • nam mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa
  • 迦樓羅

A class of semi-divine bird-like beings.

Translation by Klaus-Dieter Mathes · Julika Weber · Katrin Querl · Konstantin Brockhausen · Susanne Fleischmann · Daniel Gratzer · Georgi Krastev · Jamie Gordon Creek
  • Garuḍa
  • མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa

In Indian religious mythology, the garuḍa is a eagle-like sun bird with an enormous wingspan that is regarded as the king of all birds. They are traditionally enemies of the nāgas. In the Vedas, they are said to have brought nectar from the heavens to earth.

Translation by Ulrich Pagel
  • Garuḍa
  • ནམ་མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • nam mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa
Translation by Jake Nagasawa · ErdeneBaatar Erdene-Ochir · Jaakko Takkinen
  • Garuḍa
  • ནམ་མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • nam mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa

A class of being described as an eagle-type bird with a gigantic wingspan. They were traditionally enemies of the nāgas. In the Vedas, they were thought to have brought nectar from the heavens to earth.

Translation by David Jackson
  • Garuḍa
  • ནམ་མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • nam mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa

A class of nonhuman beings with the form of eagle-type birds with gigantic wingspans. They are traditionally considered enemies of the nāgas.

Translation by Catherine Dalton · Heidi Koppl · James Gentry · Cortland Dahl · Hilary Herdman · Andreas Doctor
  • Garuḍa
  • ནམ་མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • nam mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa

Lower class of divine being, described as an eagle-type bird with a gigantic wingspan. They were traditionally enemies of the nāgas. In the Vedas, they were thought to have brought nectar from the heavens to earth.

Translation by Jens Erland Braarvig
  • Garuḍa
  • ནམ་མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • nam mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa

Lower class of divine beings, described as eagle-type birds with gigantic wingspans. They were traditionally enemies of the nāgas. In the Vedas, they were thought to have brought nectar from the heavens to earth.

Translation by Andreas Doctor · Zachary Beer · Thomas Doctor
  • Garuḍa
  • ནམ་མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • nam mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa

A class of divine creatures with the bodies of giant birds.

Translation by Mattia Salvini
  • Garuḍa
  • ནམ་མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • nam mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa

A semi-divine bird.

Translation by Dr. Thomas Doctor · James Gentry
  • Garuḍa
  • ནམ་མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • nam mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa

A class of divine creatures with the bodies of giant birds.

Translation by Gregory Forgues
  • Garuḍa
  • garuḍa

Type of being in Buddhist cosmogony.

Translation by Peter Alan Roberts
  • Garuḍa
  • ནམ་མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • nam mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa

A supernatural being that is a gigantic bird with humanoid features.

Translation by Peter Alan Roberts
  • Garuḍa
  • ཁྱུང་།
  • khyung
  • garuḍa

One of the races of supernatural beings said to come to listen to the Buddha’s teachings; it is a bird with humanoid features, gigantic in size.

Translation by Gyurmé Avertin
  • Garuḍa
  • ནམ་མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • nam mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa

A class of nonhuman beings who have the form of eagle-type birds with gigantic wingspans. They are traditionally considered enemies of the nāgas.

Translation by Peter Alan Roberts
  • Garuḍa
  • ཁྱུང་།
  • khyung
  • garuḍa

A supernatural being that is a gigantic bird with humanoid features.

Translation by Timothy Hinkle
  • Garuḍa
  • ནམ་མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • nam mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa

Lower class of divine being, described as an eagle-type bird with a gigantic wingspan. They were traditionally enemies of the nāgas. In the Vedas, they were thought to have brought nectar from the heavens to earth.

Translation by Joseph McClellan
  • Garuḍa
  • ནམ་མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • nam mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa

A class of divine creatures with the bodies of giant birds.

Translation by Wiesiek Mical · Timothy Hinkle
  • Garuḍa
  • ནམ་མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • nam mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa

A class of celestial birds with bodies half human and half bird.

Translation by David Jackson
  • Garuḍa
  • མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa

Lower class of divine beings described as eagle-type birds with gigantic wingspans. They are traditionally enemies of the nāgas. In the Vedas, they are said to have brought nectar from the heavens to earth.

Translation by Dr. Andreas Doctor
  • Garuḍa
  • ནམ་མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • nam mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa

Lower class of divine beings described as eagle-type birds with gigantic wingspans. They are traditionally enemies of the nāgas. In the Vedas, they are said to have brought nectar from the heavens to earth.

Translation by Dr. Anne Burchardi · Tulku Dakpa Rinpoche · Dr. Ulrich Pagel
  • Garuḍa
  • ནམ་མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • nam mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa

Lower class of divine beings described as eagle-like birds with gigantic wingspans. They are traditionally enemies of the nāgas. In the Vedas, they are said to have brought nectar from the heavens to earth.

Translation by Timothy Hinkle · Ryan Damron · Dr. Andreas Doctor
  • Garuḍa
  • ནམ་མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • nam mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa

A class of nonhuman beings with the form of an eagle-type bird with a gigantic wingspan.

Translation by Timothy Hinkle
  • Garuḍa
  • མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa

Lower class of divine beings described as eagle-type birds with gigantic wingspans. They are traditionally enemies of the nāgas. In the Vedas, they are said to have brought nectar from the heavens to earth.

Translation by Benjamin Ewing
  • Garuḍa
  • ནམ་མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • nam mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa

A mythical creature which is half bird, half man, and is the enemy of serpents.

Translation by Benjamin Collet-Cassart
  • Garuḍa
  • ནམ་མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • nam mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa

Lower class of divine being, described as an eagle-type bird with a gigantic wingspan. They were traditionally enemies of the nāgas. In the Vedas, they were thought to have brought nectar from the heavens to earth.

Translation by Gyurmé Avertin
  • Garuḍa
  • ནམ་མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • nam mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa

Lower class of divine being, described as an eagle-like bird with a gigantic wing span. They were traditionally enemies of the nāgas . In the Vedas, they were thought to have brought ambrosia from the heavens to Earth.

Translation by Ani Jinpa Palmo
  • Garuḍa
  • ནམ་མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • nam mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa

Lower class of divine being, described as an eagle-type bird with a gigantic wingspan. They are traditionally enemies of the nāgas. In the Vedas, they are thought to have brought nectar from the heavens to earth.

Translation by Timothy Hinkle
  • Garuḍa
  • ནམ་མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • nam mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa

Lower class of divine being, described as an eagle-type bird with a gigantic wingspan. They were traditionally enemies of the nāgas. In the Vedas, they were thought to have brought nectar from the heavens to earth.

Translation by Jens Braarvig
  • Garuḍa
  • ནམ་མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • nam mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa

Lower class of divine beings, described as an eagle-type bird with a gigantic wingspan. They are enemies of the nāgas. In the Vedas, they were thought to have brought nectar from the heavens to earth..

Translation by Robert A. F. Thurman
  • Garuḍa
  • ནམ་མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • nam mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa

Magical bird, which protects from snakes.

Translation by Timothy Hinkle
  • Garuḍa
  • ནམ་མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • nam mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa

A class of nonhuman beings who have the form of eagle-type birds with gigantic wingspans.

Translation by Andreas Doctor · Zachary Beer
  • Garuḍa
  • མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa

In Indian religious mythology, the garuḍa is an eagle-like sun bird with an enormous wingspan that is regarded as the king of all birds. They are traditionally enemies of the nāgas. In the Vedas, they are said to have brought nectar from the heavens to earth.

Translation by Dr. Karen Liljenberg · Dr. Ulrich Pagel
  • Garuḍa
  • ཁྱུང་།
  • khyung
  • garuḍa

A mythical bird normally depicted with a sharp, owl-like beak, often holding a snake, and with large and powerful wings. In Buddhism, the symbolism of the garuḍa is generally‌ associated with pristine cognition (it is said that the garuḍa can fly as soon as it is hatched) and with the consuming of afflicted mental states (the holding of a snake in its beak).

Translation by Jamyang Choesang · Kunsang Choepel · Boyce Teoh · Solvej Nielsen
  • Garuḍa
  • ནམ་མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • nam mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa

A mythical creature which is half bird, half man, and is the enemy of serpents.

Translation by Benjamin Collet-Cassart · Nika Jovic
  • Garuḍa
  • ནམ་མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • nam mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa

Semidivine beings classified among the animals, they are a kind of fantastic bird akin to the eagle, and said to be enemies of nāgas and snakes.

Translation by Lowell Cook
  • Garuḍa
  • ནམ་མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • nam mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa
  • 迦樓羅

A type of giant, birdlike spirit.

Translation by Zachary Beer
  • Garuḍa
  • ནམ་མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • nam mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa

A class of nonhuman beings who have the form of eagle-type birds with gigantic wingspans. They are traditionally considered enemies of the nāgas.

Translation by David Jackson
  • Garuḍa
  • ནམ་མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • nam mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa

A class of nonhuman beings described as eagle-type birds with a gigantic wingspan. They were traditionally enemies of the nāgas. In the Vedas, they were thought to have brought nectar from the heavens to earth.

Translation by Karen Liljenberg · Ulrich Pagel
  • Garuḍa
  • ནམ་མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • nam mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa

A class of nonhuman beings who have the form of eagle-type birds with gigantic wingspans. They are traditionally considered enemies of the nāgas.

Translation by Joshua Capitanio
  • Garuḍa
  • མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa

A class of nonhuman bird-like beings.

Translation by Joshua Capitanio
  • Garuḍa
  • མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa

A class of nonhuman bird-like beings.

Translation by Jed Forman · ErdeneBaatar Erdene-Ochir · Michael Ium
  • Garuḍa
  • ནམ་མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • nam mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa

A class of divine beings described as eagle-type birds with gigantic wingspans. They are traditionally enemies of the nāgas. In the Vedas, they are said to have brought nectar from the heavens to earth. 

Translation by Timothy Hinkle · Anna Zilman · Lama Tenzin Sangpo
  • Garuḍa
  • ནམ་མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • nam mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa

Lower class of divine being,described as an eagle-type bird with a gigantic wingspan. They were traditionally enemies of the nāgas. In the Vedas, they were thought to have brought nectar from the heavens to earth.

Translation by Adam Krug
  • Garuḍa
  • ནམ་མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • nam mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa

A class of divine creatures with the bodies of giant birds.

Translation by Benjamin Collet-Cassart
  • Garuḍa
  • ནམ་མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • nam mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa

A class of divine being described as an eagle-type bird with a gigantic wingspan. They were traditionally enemies of the nāgas. In the Vedas, they were thought to have brought nectar from the heavens to earth

Translation by Bhikṣuṇī Thubten Damcho
  • Garuḍa
  • ནམ་མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • nam mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa
Translation by Jampa Tenzin · Ngawang Tenzin · Christian Bernert · Julia C. Stenzel
  • Garuḍa
  • ནམ་མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • nam mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa
Translation by Adam Krug
  • Garuḍa
  • མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa

A class of celestial beings.

Translation by Laura Dainty
  • Garuḍa
  • ནམ་མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • nam mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa

A kind of semidivine bird. They are traditionally enemies of the nāgas. In the Vedas, they are said to have brought nectar from the heavens to earth.

Translation by Dr. Thomas Doctor · Timothy Hinkle · Benjamin Collet-Cassart
  • Garuḍa
  • ནམ་མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • nam mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa

Lower class of divine beings described as eagle-type birds with gigantic wingspans. They are traditionally enemies of the nāgas. In the Vedas, they are said to have brought nectar from the heavens to earth.

Translation by Annie Bien
  • Garuḍa
  • ཁྱུང་།
  • khyung
  • garuḍa

Lower class of divine beings described as eagle-type birds with gigantic wingspans. They are traditionally enemies of the nāgas. In the Vedas, they are said to have brought nectar from the heavens to earth.

Translation by Bruno Galasek-Hul
  • Garuḍa
  • ནམ་མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • nam mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa

Literally “sky-soarer” in Tibetan, a class of nonhuman being described as eagle-type birds with a gigantic wingspan. They are the traditional enemies of the nāgas.

Translation by Ryan Conlon
  • Garuḍa
  • ནམ་མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • nam mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa

A class of beings described as birds with gigantic wingspans. They appear throughout classical Indian literature and are traditionally considered the enemies of nāgas.

Translation by Dr. Lozang Jamspal · Kaia Fischer · Khenpo Tsultrim Lodrö
  • Garuḍa
  • ནམ་མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • nam mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa

Classified among the animals, they are a kind of fantastic bird akin to the eagle, and said to be enemies of nāgas and snakes.

Tantra Text Warning

Warning: Readers are reminded that according to Vajrayāna Buddhist tradition there are restrictions and commitments concerning tantra. Practitioners who are not sure if they should read this translation are advised to consult the authorities of their lineage. The responsibility for reading this text or sharing it with others who may or may not fulfill the requirements lies in the hands of readers.

Translation by Wiesiek Mical
  • Garuḍa
  • ཁྱུང་།
  • khyung
  • garuḍa

A class of semi-divine bird-like beings.

Translation by Adam Krug
  • Garuḍa
  • ནམ་མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • nam mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa

A large mythical bird.

Translation by Adam Krug
  • Garuḍa
  • ནམ་མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • nam mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa

A large mythical bird.

Translation by Dylan Esler
  • Garuḍa
  • ནམ་མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • nam mkha’ lding
  • mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa

A class of nonhuman beings described as eagle-type birds with a gigantic wingspan. They were traditionally enemies of the nāgas.

Translation by Adam Krug
  • Garuḍa
  • ནམ་མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • nam mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa

A class of celestial beings.

Translation by Wiesiek Mical
  • Garuḍa
  • ནམ་མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • nam mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa

A celestial bird, enemy of serpents.

Translation by James Gentry
  • Garuḍa
  • ནམ་མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • nam mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa
Tantra Text Warning

Warning: Readers are reminded that according to Vajrayāna Buddhist tradition there are restrictions and commitments concerning tantra. Practitioners who are not sure if they should read this translation are advised to consult the authorities of their lineage. The responsibility for reading this text or sharing it with others who may or may not fulfill the requirements lies in the hands of readers.

Translation by Wiesiek Mical · Anna Zilman · Andreas Doctor · Adam Krug
  • Garuḍa
  • ནམ་མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • nam mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa

A celestial bird.

Tantra Text Warning

Warning: Readers are reminded that according to Vajrayāna Buddhist tradition there are restrictions and commitments concerning tantra. Practitioners who are not sure if they should read this translation are advised to consult the authorities of their lineage. The responsibility for reading this text or sharing it with others who may or may not fulfill the requirements lies in the hands of readers.

Translation by Laura Dainty · Khenpo Tsöndrü Sangpo
  • Garuḍa
  • ནམ་མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • nam mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa

A class of nonhuman beings who have the form of eagle-type birds with gigantic wingspans. They are traditionally considered enemies of the nāgas. Garuḍa can also be used as a proper name for a king of such creatures.

  • Garuḍa
  • ནམ་མཁའི་ལྡིང་།
  • nam mkha’i lding
  • garuḍa

A class of nonhuman beings, half-human and half-bird.

Tantra Text Warning

Warning: Readers are reminded that according to Vajrayāna Buddhist tradition there are restrictions and commitments concerning tantra. Practitioners who are not sure if they should read this translation are advised to consult the authorities of their lineage. The responsibility for reading this text or sharing it with others who may or may not fulfill the requirements lies in the hands of readers.

Translation by Lozang Jamspal · Kaia Fischer · Erin Sperry
  • Garuḍa
  • ནམ་མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • nam mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa

A class of nonhuman supernatural beings that have the form of eagle-type birds with gigantic wingspans. They are traditionally considered enemies of the nāgas. Garuḍa can also be used as a proper name for a king of such creatures.

Translation by Adam Krug
  • Garuḍa
  • གསེར་འདབ།
  • gser ’dab
  • garuḍa

A class of bird deities.

Translation by Adam Krug
  • Garuḍa
  • གསེར་འདབ།
  • gser ’dab
  • garuḍa

A class of bird deities.

Translation by Gareth Sparham
  • Garuḍa
  • ནམ་མཁའ་ལྡིང་།
  • nam mkha’ lding
  • garuḍa