Our trilingual glossary combining entries from all of our publications into one useful resource, giving translations and definitions of thousands of terms, people, places, and texts from the Buddhist canon.

# སྟོབས་བཅུ། | Glossary of Terms

## སྟོབས་བཅུ།

stobs bcu

daśabala

- Term

- Ten powers

- སྟོབས་བཅུ།

- stobs bcu

- daśa balāni

Ten kinds of a buddha’s cognitive power.

- Ten powers

- སྟོབས་བཅུ།

- stobs bcu

- daśabala

In this text, this primarily refers to a buddha's ten powers, which are enumerated and described beginning at UT22084-039-002-147.

- Ten powers

- སྟོབས་བཅུ།

- stobs bcu

- daśabala

- 十力

The classical list of the Buddha’s ten powers, which appears frequently throughout both Pāli and Sanskrit sources, refers to the following powers of knowing (Skt. jñānabala): (1) Knowing what is possible and what is impossible (Skt. sthānāsthāna). (2) Knowing the ripening of karma (Skt. karmavipāka). (3) Knowing the various inclinations (Skt. nānādhimukti). (4) Knowing the various elements (Skt. nānādhātu). (5) Knowing the supreme and lesser faculties (Skt. indriyaparāpara). (6) Knowing the paths that lead to all destinations (Skt. sarvatragāminīpratipad). (7) Knowing the concentrations, liberations, absorptions, and attainments (Skt. dhyānavimokṣasamādhisamāpatti). (8) Knowing the recollection of past existences (Skt. pūrvanivāsānusmṛti). (9) Knowing death and rebirth (Skt. cyutyupapatti). (10) Knowing the exhaustion of the defilements (Skt. āsravakṣaya).

- Ten powers

- སྟོབས་བཅུ།

- stobs bcu

- daśabala

The powers (sometimes also called strengths), unique to tathāgatas, of: (1) knowing what is possible and what is impossible (sthānāsthānajñānabala, gnas dang gnas ma yin pa mkhyen pa); (2) knowing the ripening of karma (karmavipākajñānabala, las kyi rnam smin mkhyen pa); (3) knowing the various inclinations (nānādhimuktijñānabala, mos pa sna tshogs mkhyen pa); (4) knowing the various elements (nānādhātujñānabala, khams sna tshogs mkhyen pa); (5) knowing the supreme and lesser faculties (indriyaparāparajñānabala, dbang po mchog dang mchog ma yin pa mkhyen pa); (6) knowing the paths that lead to all destinations (sarvatragāminīpratipajjñānabala, thams cad du ’gro ba’i lam mkhyen pa); (7) knowing the concentrations, liberations, absorptions, equilibriums, afflictions, purifications, and abidings (dhyānavimokṣasamādhisamāpattisaṃkleśavyavadānavyutthānajñānabala, bsam gtan dang rnam thar dang ting ’dzin dang snyoms ’jug dang kun nas nyon mongs pa dang rnam par byang ba dang ldan ba thams cad mkhyen pa); (8) knowing the recollection of past existences (pūrvanivāsānusmṛtijñānabala, sngon gyi gnas rjes su dran pa mkhyen pa); (9) knowing death and rebirth (cyutyupapattijñānabala, ’chi ’pho ba dang skye ba mkhyen pa); and (10) knowing the exhaustion of the defilements (āsravakṣayajñānabala, zag pa zad pa mkhyen pa).

- Ten powers

- སྟོབས་བཅུ།

- stobs bcu

- daśabala

The ten powers of a buddha (daśatathāgatabala, de bzhin gshegs pa’i stobs bcu): (1) the power of knowing right from wrong (gnas dang gnas min mkhyen pa’i stobs), (2) the power of knowing the fruition of actions (las kyi rnam par smin pa mkhyen pa’i stobs), (3) the power of knowing various mental inclinations (mos pa sna tshogs mkhyen pa’i stobs), (4) the power of knowing various mental faculties (khams sna tshogs mkhyen pa’i stobs), (5) the power of knowing various degrees of intelligence (dbang po sna tshogs mkhyen pa’i stobs), (6) the power of knowing the paths to all rebirths (sarvatragāminpratipādajñānabala, thams cad du ’gro ba’i lam mkhyen pa’i stobs), (7) the power of knowing the ever-afflicted and purified phenomena (kun nas nyon mongs pa dang rnam par byang ba mkhyen pa’i stobs), (8) the power of knowing past lives (sngon gyi gnas rjes su dran pa mkhyen pa’i stobs), (9) the power of knowing deaths and births (’chi ’pho ba dang skye ba mkhyen pa’i stobs), and (10) the power of knowing the exhaustion of the contaminations (zag pa zad pa mkhyen pa’i stobs). See also “five powers.”

- Ten powers

- སྟོབས་བཅུ།

- stobs bcu

- daśabala

The ten powers (daśabala, stobs bcu) of the Tathāgata are (1) the power of knowledge of what is possible and what is not possible (sthānāsthānajñānabala, gnas dang gnas ma yin pa mkhyen pa’i stobs); (2) the power of knowledge of the individual results of actions (karmasvakajñānabala, las kyi rnam smin mkhyen pa’i stobs); (3) the power of knowledge of different practices leading to various destinies (sarvatragāminīpratipajjñānabala, thams cad du ’gro ba’i lam mkhyen pa’i stobs); (4) the power of knowledge of the different dispositions and tendencies of different beings (anekadhātunānādhātujñānabala, khams sna tshogs mkhyen pa’i stobs); (5) the power of knowledge of the different aspirations of beings (nānādhimuktijñānabala, mos pa sna tshogs mkhyen pa’i stobs); (6) the power of knowledge of the different degrees of development of the faculties and inclinations of beings (indriyaparāparyajñānabala, dbang po mchog dang mchog ma yin pa mkhyen pa’i stobs); (7) the power of knowledge of the absorptions, deliverances, concentrations, and attainments (dhyānavimokṣasamādhisamāpattijñānabala, bsam gtan dang rnam thar dang ting nge ’dzin dang snyoms par ’jug pa thams cad mkhyen pa’i stobs); (8) the power of knowledge of previous lives (pūrvanivāsajñānabala, sngon gyi gnas rjes su dran pa mkhyen pa’i stobs); (9) the power of knowledge of the deaths and births of beings according to their actions (cyutyupapādajñānabala, ’chi ’pho bo dang skye ba mkhyen pa’i stobs); and (10) the power of knowledge of the destruction of the impurities (āsravakṣayajñānabala, zag pa zad pa mkhyen pa’i stobs). (Rahula 2001: 229–230, n118).

- Ten powers

- སྟོབས་བཅུ།

- stobs bcu

- daśabala

One set among the different qualities of a tathāgata. The ten powers are (1) the knowledge of what is possible and not possible; (2) the knowledge of the ripening of karma; (3) the knowledge of the variety of aspirations; (4) the knowledge of the variety of natures; (5) the knowledge of the different levels of capabilities; (6) the knowledge of the destinations of all paths; (7) the knowledge of various states of meditation (dhyāna, liberation, samādhi, samāpatti, and so on); (8) the knowledge of remembering previous lives; (9) the knowledge of deaths and rebirths; and (10) the knowledge of the cessation of defilements.

- Ten powers

- སྟོབས་བཅུ།

- stobs bcu

- daśabala

May refer to either: i.) the ten powers of a thus-gone one (daśatathāgatabala, de bzhin gshegs pa’i stobs bcu): (1) the knowledge of what is possible and not possible, (2) the knowledge of the ripening of karma, (3) the knowledge of the variety of aspirations, (4) the knowledge of the variety of natures, (5) the knowledge of the supreme and lesser faculties of sentient beings, (6) the knowledge of the destinations of all paths, (7) the knowledge of various states of meditation, (8) the knowledge of remembering previous lives, (9) the knowledge of deaths and rebirths, and (10) the knowledge of the cessation of defilements; or ii.) the ten powers of a bodhisattva (daśabodhisattvabala, byang chub sems pa’i stobs bcu): (1) the power of intention, (2) the power of resolute intention, (3) the power of application, (4) the power of insight, (5) the power of prayer, (6) the power of vehicle, (7) the power of conduct, (8) the power of emanation, (9) the power of awakening, and (10) the power of turning the wheel of the Dharma

- Ten powers

- སྟོབས་བཅུ།

- stobs bcu

- daśabala

The classical list of the Buddha’s ten powers, which appears frequently throughout both Pali and Sanskrit sources, refers to the following powers of knowing (jñānabala): (1) Knowing what is possible and what is impossible (sthānāsthāna), (2) Knowing the ripening of karma (karmavipāka), (3) Knowing the various inclinations (nānādhimukti), (4) Knowing the various elements (nānādhātu), (5) Knowing the supreme and lesser faculties (indriyaparāpara), (6) Knowing the paths that lead to all destinations (sarvatragāminīpratipad), (7) Knowing the concentrations, liberations, absorptions, and attainments (dhyānavimokṣasamādhisamāpatti), (8) Knowing the recollection of past existences (pūrvanivāsānusmṛti), (9) Knowing death and rebirth (cyutyupapatti), and (10) Knowing the exhaustion of the defilements (āsravakṣaya).

- Ten powers

- སྟོབས་བཅུ།

- stobs bcu

- daśabala

Ten areas of a buddha’s knowledge, through which he is omniscient.

- Ten powers

- སྟོབས་བཅུ།

- stobs bcu

- daśabala

One set among the different qualities of a tathāgata. The ten powers are (1) the knowledge of what is possible and not possible; (2) the knowledge of the ripening of karma; (3) the knowledge of the variety of aspirations; (4) the knowledge of the variety of natures; (5) the knowledge of the different levels of capabilities; (6) the knowledge of the destinations of all paths; (7) the knowledge of various states of meditation (dhyāna, liberation, samādhi, samāpatti, and so on); (8) the knowledge of remembering previous lives; (9) the knowledge of deaths and rebirths; and (10) the knowledge of the cessation of defilements.

- Ten powers

- སྟོབས་བཅུ།

- stobs bcu

- daśabala

There are two different sets of ten powers, those of the Buddha and those of bodhisattvas. Those of the Buddha consist of power from knowing right from wrong (sthānāsthānajñānabala); power from knowing the consequences of actions (karmavipākajñāna-); power from knowing the various inclinations (of living beings) (nānādhimuktijñāna-); power from knowing the various types (of living beings) (nānādhātujñāna-); power from knowing the degree of the capacities (of living beings) (indriyavarāvarajñāna-); power from knowing the path that leads everywhere (sarvatragāmīmpratipatjñāna-); power from knowing the obscuration, affliction, and purification of all contemplations, meditations, liberations, concentrations, and absorptions (sarvadhyānavimokṣasamādhisamāpattisaṃkleśavyavadānavyutthānajñāna-); power from knowing his own former lives (pūrvanivāsānusmṛtijñāna-); power from knowing deaths and future lives (cyutyutpattijñāna-); and power from knowing the exhaustion of defilements (āsravakṣayajñāna-). The latter set consists of the bodhisattva’s power of positive thought (āśayabala); power of high resolve (adhyāśaya-); power of application (prayoga-); power of wisdom (prajña-); power of prayer (praṇidhāna-); power of vehicle (yāna-); power of activities (caryā-); power of emanations (vikurvaṇa-); power of enlightenment (bodhi-); and power of turning the wheel of the Dharma (dharmacakrapravartaṇa-).

- Ten powers

- སྟོབས་བཅུ།

- stobs bcu

- daśabala

One set among the different qualities of a thus-gone one. The ten powers can be listed as: (1) the knowledge of what is possible and not possible, (2) the knowledge of the ripening of karma, (3) the knowledge of the variety of aspirations, (4) the knowledge of the variety of natures, (5) the knowledge of the supreme and lesser faculties of sentient beings, (6) the knowledge of the destinations of all paths, (7) the knowledge of various states of meditation, (8) the knowledge of remembering previous lives, (9) the knowledge of deaths and rebirths, and (10) the knowledge of the cessation of defilements.

- Ten powers

- སྟོབས་བཅུ།

- stobs bcu

- daśabala

Ten wisdom powers unique to a thus-gone one: (1) the knowledge of what is possible and not possible, (2) the knowledge of the ripening of karma, (3) the knowledge of the variety of aspirations, (4) the knowledge of the variety of elements, (5) the knowledge of the different capabilities, (6) the knowledge of the destinations of all paths, (7) the knowledge of various states of meditation, (8) the knowledge of remembering previous lives, (9) the knowledge of deaths and rebirths, and (10) the knowledge of the cessation of defilements.

- Ten powers

- སྟོབས་བཅུ།

- stobs bcu

- daśabala

The ten knowledges of a buddha or bodhisattva: (1) the knowledge of what is possible and not possible, (2) the knowledge of the ripening of karma, (3) the knowledge of the variety of aspirations, (4) the knowledge of the variety of natures, (5) the knowledge of the different levels of capabilities, (6) the knowledge of the destinations of all paths, (7) the knowledge of various states of meditation, (8) the knowledge of remembering previous lives, (9) the knowledge of deaths and rebirths, and (10) the knowledge of the cessation of defilements.

- Ten powers

- སྟོབས་བཅུ།

- stobs bcu

- daśabala

A category of the distinctive qualities of a tathāgata. They are: knowing what is possible and what is impossible; knowing the results of actions or the ripening of karma; knowing the various inclinations of sentient beings; knowing the various elements; knowing the supreme and lesser faculties of sentient beings; knowing the paths that lead to all destinations of rebirth; knowing the concentrations, liberations, absorptions, equilibriums, afflictions, purifications, and abidings; knowing previous lives; knowing the death and rebirth of sentient beings; and knowing the cessation of the defilements.

- Ten powers

- སྟོབས་བཅུ།

- stobs bcu

- daśabala

Although the various sources have some variation of these ten powers, one classical list of the Buddha’s ten powers, which appears frequently throughout both Pāli and Sanskrit sources, refers to the following powers of knowing (jñānabala): (1) knowing what is possible and what is impossible (sthānāsthāna), (2) knowing the ripening of karma (karmavipāka), (3) knowing the various inclinations (nānādhimukti), (4) knowing the various elements (nānādhātu), (5) knowing the supreme and lesser faculties (indriyaparāpara), (6) knowing the paths that lead to all destinations (sarvatragāminīpratipad), (7) knowing the concentrations, liberations, absorptions, and attainments (dhyānavimokṣasamādhisamāpatti), (8) knowing the recollection of past existences (pūrvanivāsānusmṛti), (9) knowing death and rebirth (cyutyupapatti), and (10) knowing the exhaustion of the defilements (āsravakṣaya).

- Ten powers

- སྟོབས་བཅུ།

- stobs bcu

- daśabala

Ten wisdom powers unique to a tathāgata: (1) the knowledge of what is possible and not possible, (2) the knowledge of the ripening of karma, (3) the knowledge of the variety of aspirations, (4) the knowledge of the variety of natures, (5) the knowledge of the different levels of capabilities, (6) the knowledge of the destinations of all paths, (7) the knowledge of various states of meditation, (8) the knowledge of remembering previous lives, (9) the knowledge of deaths and rebirths, and (10) the knowledge of the cessation of defilements.

- Ten powers

- སྟོབས་བཅུ།

- stobs bcu

- daśabala

The ten powers of a buddha or bodhisattva; these concern mostly their clairvoyant knowledge.

- Ten strengths

- སྟོབས་བཅུ།

- stobs bcu

- daśabala

Kalyāṇamitra gives a list of nine strengths: the strengths of knowing right from wrong; knowing one’s karma is one’s own doing; absorption in concentration, liberation, and samādhi; knowing supreme faculties from those that are not; knowing the range of dispositions; knowing the paths on which all tread; knowing and recollecting past rebirths; knowing birth and death; and knowing the exhaustion of defilements (Kalyāṇamitra, folios 218.b.2–218.b.6). To these, one can add the tenth from a list given by Kawa Paltsek in his A Mnemonic for Dharma Lists, which follows Kalyāṇamitra’s in most other regards: The strength of knowing the range of different inclinations (nor brang 2008, pp. 2180–81).

- Ten strengths

- སྟོབས་བཅུ།

- stobs bcu

- daśabala

The ten strengths of a tathāgata are (1) the knowledge of what is possible and not possible, (2) the knowledge of the ripening of karma, (3) the knowledge of the variety of aspirations, (4) the knowledge of the variety of natures, (5) the knowledge of the levels of capabilities, (6) the knowledge of the destinations of all paths, (7) the knowledge of dhyāna, liberation, samādhi, samāpatti, and so on, (8) the knowledge of remembering past lives, (9) the knowledge of deaths and rebirths, and (10) the knowledge of the cessation of defilements.

- Ten strengths

- སྟོབས་བཅུ།

- stobs bcu

- daśabala

A category of the distinctive qualities of a buddha. They are knowing what is possible and what is impossible; knowing the results of actions or the ripening of karma; knowing the various inclinations of sentient beings; knowing the various elements; knowing the supreme and lesser faculties of sentient beings; knowing the paths that lead to all destinations of rebirth; knowing the concentrations, liberations, absorptions, equilibriums, afflictions, purifications, and abidings; knowing previous lives; knowing the death and rebirth of sentient beings; and knowing the cessation of the defilements.

- Ten strengths

- སྟོབས་བཅུ།

- stobs bcu

- daśabala

- 十力

The ten strenghts of a buddha: reflection, intention, application, insight, aspiration, vehicle, conduct, manifestation, awakening, and turning the Dharma wheel.

- Ten strengths

- སྟོབས་བཅུ།

- stobs bcu

- daśabala

The ten strengths of a tathāgata: (1) knowledge of what is possible and what is not, (2) knowledge of how karmic deeds will ripen, (3) knowledge of the variety of elements, (4) knowledge of sentient beings’ inclinations, (5) knowledge of sentient beings’ inferior and superior faculties, (6) knowledge of the paths pursued by everyone, (7) knowledge of concentration, liberation, contemplation, and absorption, (8) remembering previous lives, (9) knowledge of the transference of consciousness at death and birth, and (10) knowledge of the cessation of defilements.

- Ten strengths

- སྟོབས་བཅུ།

- stobs bcu

- daśabala

- 十力

The ten strengths of the bodhisattvas are (1) disposition, (2) superior intent, (3) application, (4) wisdom, (5) aspiration, (6) vehicle, (7) conduct, (8) transformation, (9) enlightenment, and (10) turning the Dharma Wheel.

- Ten strengths

- སྟོབས་བཅུ།

- stobs bcu

- daśabala

A category of the distinctive qualities of a buddha. They are knowing what is possible and what is impossible, knowing the results of actions or the ripening of karma, knowing the various inclinations of sentient beings, knowing the various elements, knowing the supreme and lesser faculties of sentient beings, knowing the paths that lead to all destinations of rebirth, knowing the various states of meditation, knowing previous lives, knowing the death and rebirth of sentient beings, and knowing the cessation of the defilements.

- Ten strengths

- སྟོབས་བཅུ།

- stobs bcu

- daśabala

One set among the different qualities of a tathāgata. The ten strengths are (1) the knowledge of what is possible and not possible; (2) the knowledge of the ripening of karma; (3) the knowledge of the variety of aspirations; (4) the knowledge of the variety of natures; (5) the knowledge of the different levels of capabilities; (6) the knowledge of the destinations of all paths; (7) the knowledge of various states of meditation (dhyāna, liberation, samādhi, samāpatti, and so on); (8) the knowledge of remembering previous lives; (9) the knowledge of deaths and rebirths; and (10) the knowledge of the cessation of defilements.

- Ten strengths

- སྟོབས་བཅུ།

- stobs bcu

- daśabala

The ten strengths of a buddha or a bodhisattva; they are ten types of clairvoyant knowledge. They should not be confused with the “ten powers” (daśavaśitā), which are powers to control various aspects of existence. The ten strengths are (1) the knowledge of what is possible and not possible, (2) the knowledge of the ripening of karma, (3) the knowledge of the variety of aspirations, (4) the knowledge of the variety of natures, (5) the knowledge of the different levels of capabilities, (6) the knowledge of the destinations of all paths, (7) the knowledge of various states of meditation, (8) the knowledge of remembering previous lives, (9) the knowledge of deaths and rebirths, and (10) the knowledge of the cessation of defilements.

- Ten strengths

- སྟོབས་བཅུ།

- stobs bcu

- daśabala

One set among the different qualities of a tathāgata. The ten strengths are (1) the knowledge of what is possible and not possible, (2) the knowledge of the ripening of karma, (3) the knowledge of the variety of aspirations, (4) the knowledge of the variety of natures, (5) the knowledge of the different levels of capabilities, (6) the knowledge of the destinations of all paths, (7) the knowledge of various states of meditation, (8) the knowledge of remembering previous lives, (9) the knowledge of deaths and rebirths, and (10) the knowledge of the cessation of defilements.

- Ten strengths

- སྟོབས་པ་རྣམ་པ་བཅུ།

- stobs pa rnam pa bcu

- daśabala

The ten strengths are (1) the knowledge of what is possible and not possible; (2) the knowledge of the ripening of karma; (3) the knowledge of the variety of aspirations; (4) the knowledge of the variety of natures; (5) the knowledge of the different levels of capabilities; (6) the knowledge of the destinations of all paths; (7) the knowledge of various states of meditation (dhyāna, liberation, samādhi, samāpatti, and so on); (8) the knowledge of remembering previous lives; (9) the knowledge of deaths and rebirths; and (10) the knowledge of the cessation of defilements.

- Ten strengths

- སྟོབས་བཅུ།

- stobs bcu

- daśabala

A category of the distinctive qualities of a buddha. They are: knowing what is possible and what is impossible; knowing the results of actions or the ripening of karma; knowing the various inclinations of sentient beings; knowing the various elements; knowing the supreme and lesser faculties of sentient beings; knowing the paths that lead to all destinations of rebirth; knowing the concentrations, liberations, absorptions, equilibriums, afflictions, purifications, and abidings; knowing previous lives; knowing the death and rebirth of sentient beings; and knowing the cessation of the defilements.

*Warning:* Readers are reminded that according to Vajrayāna Buddhist tradition there are restrictions and commitments concerning tantra. Practitioners who are not sure if they should read this translation are advised to consult the authorities of their lineage. The responsibility for reading this text or sharing it with others who may or may not fulfill the requirements lies in the hands of readers.

- Ten strengths

- སྟོབས་བཅུ།

- stobs bcu

- daśabala

Apart from the last one, these ten pertain to the different types of clairvoyant knowledge that a buddha has. The list includes (1) the knowledge of what is possible and not possible, (2) the knowledge of the ripening of karma, (3) the knowledge of the variety of aspirations, (4) the knowledge of the variety of elements, (5) the knowledge of the different degrees of capability, (6) the knowledge of the destinations of all paths, (7) the knowledge of various states of meditation, (8) the knowledge of remembering previous lives, (9) the knowledge of deaths and rebirths, and (10) the cessation of defilements.