The Play in Full
The Purity of the Family
Degé Kangyur, vol. 46 (mdo sde, kha), folios 1.b–216.b
Translated by the Dharmachakra Translation Committee
under the patronage and supervision of 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha
The Play in Full tells the story of how the Buddha manifested in this world and attained awakening, as perceived from the perspective of the Great Vehicle. The sūtra, which is structured in twenty-seven chapters, first presents the events surrounding the Buddha’s birth, childhood, and adolescence in the royal palace of his father, king of the Śākya nation. It then recounts his escape from the palace and the years of hardship he faced in his quest for spiritual awakening. Finally the sūtra reveals his complete victory over the demon Māra, his attainment of awakening under the Bodhi tree, his first turning of the wheel of Dharma, and the formation of the very early saṅgha.
This text was translated by the Dharmachakra Translation Committee under the supervision of Chökyi Nyima Rinpoche.
Cortland Dahl, Catherine Dalton, Hilary Herdman, Heidi Koppl, James Gentry, and Andreas Doctor translated the text from Tibetan into English. Andreas Doctor and Wiesiek Mical then compared the translations against the original Tibetan and Sanskrit, respectively. Finally, Andreas Doctor edited the translation and wrote the introduction.
The Dharmachakra Translation Committee would like to thank Chökyi Nyima Rinpoche for blessing this project, and Khenpo Sherap Sangpo for his generous assistance with the resolution of several difficult passages.
This translation has been completed under the patronage and supervision of 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha.
The generous sponsorship of 簡源震及家人江秀敏，簡暐如，簡暐丞 Chien YuanChen (Dharma Das) and his wife, daughter, and son for work on this sūtra is gratefully acknowledged.
Monks, in this way the Bodhisattva was exhorted that the time for the Dharma had come. Emerging from that great celestial palace, [F.9.b] the Bodhisattva went to the great Dharmoccaya Palace, where he taught the Dharma to the gods in the Heaven of Joy. In the palace, he seated himself upon a lion throne known as Sublime Dharma. He was joined in the palace by a group of gods whose good fortune equaled that of the Bodhisattva, and who had entered the same vehicle. Bodhisattvas with similar conduct to the Bodhisattva gathered from throughout the ten directions. Retinues with equally pure intentions accompanied the gods, without the assembly of divine maidens and even without ordinary gods. Altogether a retinue of 680 million entered the palace, each sitting on a lion throne according to rank.
At that time the gods from the pure realms ventured to Jambudvīpa. Hiding their divine forms, they took on the guise of priests and taught the Vedas to other priests. They made it known that one who entered the womb in this manner  would be a great being possessed of thirty-two marks:
“Someone with such marks would become one of two things. There would be no third option,” they said. “If such an individual were to live as a householder, he would become a universal monarch with a fourfold army. He would become a conqueror, a righteous Dharma king. Such a king would have the seven treasures: the precious wheel, the precious elephant, the precious horse, the precious jewel, the precious wife, the precious steward, and the precious minister.
“How is it that a universal monarch comes to possess the precious wheel? Such a wheel can only belong to a king who has been properly consecrated by sprinkling his head. On the fifteenth day of the lunar month, while observing a poṣadha fast, the king will first wash his head and then go to the top terrace of the palace, surrounded by the women of the female quarters. Then a precious, divine wheel with one thousand spokes will appear from the east. [F.10.a] As high as seven tāla trees, the wheel, which is not made by a smith, is round with a central hub and made entirely of gold.
“This precious, divine wheel will now belong to the king, who is appointed to the highest rank of the ruling class. As he sees it, he will think to himself, ‘I have heard that if a precious, divine wheel appears from the east when a king, who has been appointed to the highest rank of the ruling class, ascends to the top floor of the palace surrounded by a gathering of women while observing a poṣadha fast on the fifteenth day of the lunar month, then he shall become a universal monarch. Since I can now clearly perceive this precious, divine wheel, I must certainly be a universal monarch!’
“The king appointed to the highest rank of the ruling class will then draw his cloak back from one shoulder and lower his right knee to the ground. Turning the precious, divine wheel with his right hand, he will proclaim, ‘Precious wheel, noble and divine, please turn in harmony with the Dharma, rather than that which is not the Dharma.’
“The precious, divine wheel, set in motion by the king appointed to the highest rank of the ruling class, will magically travel through space to the east, followed by the universal monarch and his four army divisions. Wherever the wheel comes to rest,  there the king appointed to the highest rank of the ruling class and his four army divisions will set up their camp.
“As he travels, the provincial kings of the eastern lands will come to greet him, carrying silver vessels filled with gold dust, and gold vessels filled with fragments of silver. ‘Welcome, lord,’ they will say. ‘Please come. This kingdom is yours. It is extremely vast and prosperous. [F.10.b] With bountiful harvests, it is both delightful and populous. Indeed it is filled with people. Now that you have arrived in this land, lord, it is yours. We beseech you to stay.’
“Replying to the provincial kings, the king appointed to the highest rank of the ruling class will respond, ‘May you rule your respective kingdoms according to the Dharma, and not by what is not Dharma. Do not take the lives of living beings, do not take what is not given, and do not engage in sexual misconduct. Likewise you should refrain from telling lies, sowing discord, speaking harshly, and talking frivolously. Do not let your mind be overcome by covetousness, malice, or misguided beliefs. Do not befriend those who take life or those with misguided beliefs. Should non-Dharma arise in my dominion, do not applaud those who practice it.’ In this way the king, who is appointed to the highest rank of the ruling class, will conquer the east.
“Having conquered the east, the precious wheel will then move toward the eastern seas. Crossing over them, it will travel magically through space to the south, accompanied by the universal monarch and his four army divisions. As before he will conquer the south, and then move on to conquer the west and the north.
“Once the king has conquered the north, the wheel will move toward the northern seas and, traveling magically through the sky to the royal palace, it will come to rest unharmed at the entrance to the quarters of the queen’s retinue. In this manner the king appointed to the highest rank of the ruling class comes to possess the precious wheel.
“How is it that a universal monarch comes to possess the precious elephant? [F.11.a] The precious elephant of the king appointed to the highest rank of the ruling class appears in the same way that the precious wheel appeared. Completely white in color, the precious elephant has four limbs, two tusks, and a trunk. Its head is ornamented with gold, and it bears a gold victory banner. Likewise it is bedecked with gold ornaments and covered with gold netting.  Its magical powers enable it to fly through the sky and transform itself. This king of elephants is known as Bodhi.
“When the king appointed to the highest rank of the ruling class wishes to examine the precious elephant, he will mount it at daybreak and travel throughout this great earth, which is surrounded by oceans. After returning to the royal palace, he will fondly resume his governance. In this manner the universal monarch comes to possess the precious elephant.
“How is it that a universal monarch comes to possess the precious horse? The precious horse of the king appointed to the highest rank of the ruling class appears just as before. The precious horse has a blue body and a black head with a braided mane. It is bridled, bearing a gold victory banner and gold ornaments, and it is covered with gold netting. With its magical powers, it can fly through the sky and transform itself. This king of horses is known as Bālāhaka.
“When the king appointed to the highest rank of the ruling class wishes to examine the precious horse, he will mount it at daybreak and travel throughout this great earth, which is surrounded by oceans. After returning to the royal palace, he will fondly resume his governance. In this manner the universal monarch comes to possess the precious horse.
“How is it that a universal monarch comes to possess the precious jewel? The precious jewel of the king appointed to the highest rank of the ruling class appears just as before. [F.11.b] It is a lapis lazuli gem of pure blue color, with eight facets and very fine craftsmanship. With the light emitted from the precious jewel, the entirety of the female quarters are bathed in light.
“When the king appointed to the highest rank of the ruling class wishes to examine the precious jewel, then, at midnight, in complete darkness, he will affix it to the tip of a victory banner and venture out in the gardens  to observe the sublime grounds. The light emitted by the precious jewel will illuminate the surrounding area for an entire league, including all four divisions of the king’s army. The people who dwell in the vicinity of the precious jewel will be illuminated by its radiance. Seeing and recognizing each other, they will say to one another, ‘Wake up, friends. Start your work and get to the market. The sun is up and the day has begun.’ In this manner the universal monarch appointed to the highest rank of the ruling class comes to possess the precious jewel.
“How is it that the universal monarch appointed to the highest rank of the ruling class comes to possess the precious wife? The precious wife of the king appointed to the highest rank of the ruling class appears just as before. In accord with tradition, the precious wife has been born into the warrior class. She is not too tall or short, too fat or thin, too dark or fair. Indeed she is beautiful in form, pleasant in manner, and pleasing to the eye. She is in the full bloom of life, and every pore of her body gives off the scent of sandalwood, while from her mouth wafts the fragrance of utpala flowers. Her body is as soft to the touch as kācilindika cloth; in cold weather her body is warm to the touch, and in warm weather it is cool. Her mind, let alone her body, desires no one other than the universal monarch. In this manner the universal monarch comes to possess the precious wife. [F.12.a]
“How is it that the universal monarch appointed to the highest rank of the ruling class comes to possess the precious steward? The precious steward of the king appointed to the highest rank of the ruling class appears just as before. Learned, lucid, and intelligent, the precious steward’s divine sight will enable him to perceive treasures—both those that are owned and those that are not—in the surrounding area for up to an entire league. With those treasures that do not belong to anyone, he will cater to the material needs of the universal monarch. In this manner the universal monarch comes to possess the precious steward. 
“How is it that the universal monarch appointed to the highest rank of the ruling class comes to possess the precious minister? The precious minister of a king who has been properly consecrated by sprinkling his head appears just as before. The precious minister is learned, lucid, and intelligent. The universal monarch merely has to think of commissioning an army and it is done. In this manner the universal monarch comes to possess the precious minister. The universal monarch thus possesses these seven treasures.
“The universal monarch will also have one thousand sons. Brave, heroic, and supremely able in body, these sons will attain nothing but victory over the forces that oppose them. Without resorting to punishment or acts of violence, the king will rule with the Dharma, bringing peace and order to the entire vast kingdom that extends all the way to the oceans.
“If, however, he leaves his family behind and becomes a monk, he will become a buddha. Relinquishing the attachment of desire, and without relying on anyone else as a guide, he will become the teacher of gods and humans.”
In a similar manner, other gods arrived in Jambudvīpa to exhort the solitary buddhas. “Noble ones,” they said. “Give up this buddha realm. In twelve years’ time, the Bodhisattva will enter the womb of his mother.”
Monks, at that time there was a solitary buddha named Mātaṅga who dwelt on Mount Golāṅgulaparivartana in the city of Rājagṛha. [F.12.b] Hearing the exhortation of the gods, he became as still as mud resting upon a boulder, then rose up into the sky to the height of seven tāla trees. Merging with the fire element, like a torch he passed into nirvāṇa. His bile and phlegm, ligaments and bones, and flesh and blood were completely consumed by fire, leaving nothing but a few relics on the ground. Even today, they are known as ‘the footprints of the sage.’
Monks, at this same time five hundred solitary buddhas were assembled in a deer park outside Vārāṇasī. They too heard the exhortation of the gods, rose up into the sky to the height of seven tāla trees and, turning into fire, passed into nirvāṇa like a torch.  Their bile and phlegm, ligaments and bones, and flesh and blood were completely consumed by fire. Nothing was left behind, save a few relics that fell to the ground. From this point on, the area came to be known as Ṛṣipatana, or the Hill of the Fallen Sages. The area also came to be known as Mṛgadāva, or the Deer Park, since deer frolicked there without fear.
Monks, in this manner the Bodhisattva dwelt in the supreme realm of the Heaven of Joy, where he engaged in four great examinations. What were these four? He examined the time of his birth, the continent of his birth, the country of his birth, and the family of his birth.
And why, monks, did the Bodhisattva examine the time of his birth? Because a bodhisattva does not enter his mother’s womb at the beginning of time when sentient beings are evolving. Rather it is when the world has formed and when birth, [F.13.a] old age, sickness, and death have become known that a bodhisattva enters his mother’s womb.
And why, monks, did the Bodhisattva examine the continent of his birth? Because a bodhisattva is not born in an outlying continent, nor is he born on the eastern continent of Pūrvavideha, on the western continent of Aparagodānīya, or on the northern continent of Uttarakuru. Rather a bodhisattva is born on the southern continent of Jambudvīpa.
And why, monks, did the Bodhisattva examine the country of his birth? Because a bodhisattva is not born in outlying lands where people are as stupid as sheep, with dull faculties, ignorant, and incapable of distinguishing right from wrong. Rather a bodhisattva is born in a central land. 
And why, monks, did the Bodhisattva examine the family of his birth? Because a bodhisattva is not born into an inferior family, like a family of outcastes, flutemakers, cartwrights, or servants. A bodhisattva is only born into one of two families—a priestly family or a family of the ruling class. When the priestly families are dominant in the world, the bodhisattva is born into a priestly family. When the ruling-class families are dominant in the world, the bodhisattva is born into a ruling-class family. Thus, monks, at this time the ruling-class families were dominant in the world, so bodhisattvas were born into such families.
“This is not a worthy place for the Bodhisattva to be conceived,” others responded, “for the mother’s family is not pure, nor is the father’s. The family’s fortunes have come about from little merit, not a vast store of merit. They are impetuous, unstable, and fickle. The surrounding environs of their land are like a desert, with few groves, lakes, and ponds. This is a primitive land, like a remote village. Hence this is not a worthy place for the Bodhisattva to take birth.”
“This is not a worthy place, either,” others replied. “The Kośala family descends from outcastes. Neither the father’s nor the mother’s families are pure. Their interests are base and their line is ignoble. Moreover, they have no limitless store of wealth and treasures. Hence this is not a worthy place for the Bodhisattva to take birth.” 
To this, others replied, “This is not a worthy place. The family of the king of Vatsa is base, violent, and lacking in nobility. They are illegitimate by birth, and their accomplishments have not resulted from the noble deeds of their parents. The king is a nihilist. Hence this is not a worthy place for the Bodhisattva to take birth, either.”
Some suggested, “The city of Vaiśālī is wealthy, prosperous, and happy. Delightful and teeming with people, [F.14.a] it is like a heavenly palace, with terraces, balconies, architraves, skylights, cool pavilions, multistoried buildings, and palaces. This city is filled with blooming flowers, ringed with gardens, and encircled by forests. This is a worthy place for the Bodhisattva to be conceived.”
“This is not a worthy place, either,” others replied. “They do not speak to one another with decorum. They have no Dharma practice, nor do they respect their superiors, elders, leaders, or those in between. Each thinks that he is king, never taking on the role of a student or accepting the Dharma. Hence this city is not worthy of the Bodhisattva, either.”
Others said, “The Pradyota family in the city of Ujjayinī has a great army and many mounts. They have emerged victorious in battle over their foes. This is a fitting place for the Bodhisattva to be conceived.”
To this the response came, “This is not a worthy place, for these people are malicious and violent. They are uncivilized, wild, and impetuous, without any heed for the consequences of their actions. Hence this is not an appropriate place for the Bodhisattva to be conceived.”
Some said, “The city of Mathurā is rich, prosperous, and happy. It is populous, filled with people.  The royal palace of King Subāhu, who commands an army of brave warriors, is a fitting place for the Bodhisattva to be conceived.”
“This is not a worthy place,” others replied. “This king was born into a family with wrong views. Indeed he is like a savage, so it is inappropriate for the Bodhisattva to take his final existence in a family with wrong views. [F.14.b] Hence this as well is not an appropriate place for the Bodhisattva to be conceived.”
Some suggested, “The king of the city of Hastināpura was born in the family descended from Pāṇḍu. This king is brave, courageous, and handsome. He has conquered opposing armies. Thus it is fitting for the Bodhisattva to be conceived in this family.”
To this, others responded, “This family is also not worthy of the Bodhisattva. Those born into the Pāṇḍava family have confused their genealogy. They say that Yudhiṣṭhira is the son of Dharma, that Bhīmasena is the son of Vāyu, that Arjuna is the son of Indra, and that Nakula and Sahadeva are the sons of the two Aśvins. Hence it is not proper for the Bodhisattva to be conceived in this family.”
Some said, “The city of Mithilā is extremely beautiful and prosperous. This is the land ruled by King Sumitra, who has many elephants, horses, chariots, infantry, and troops. He also has great material wealth, with great stores of gold, silver, jewels, pearls, beryl, conches, crystals, corals, fine gold, and many other riches and belongings. He is powerful, with an army unafraid of the kings from surrounding lands. He has many friends, and he delights in the Dharma. This family is a fitting place for the Bodhisattva to be conceived.”
“This is not appropriate,” others replied. “King Sumitra does indeed have these qualities. Yet he is extremely aged, so he does not even possess the ability to produce a son. Moreover, he already has many sons. It is not proper for the Bodhisattva to be conceived in this family.”
As they considered this, a god named Jñānaketudhvaja, who was firmly established in the Great Vehicle and could not be turned away from awakening, spoke to the great assembly of gods and bodhisattvas: “Come, my friends. Let us go before the Bodhisattva himself and ask him what sublime qualities a precious family must have in order for a bodhisattva to take his final birth there.”
“Excellent!” they replied. With palms joined, they all went before the Bodhisattva and asked him, “Sublime Being, what sublime qualities must a precious family have for a bodhisattva to take his final birth there?”
Looking upon the great assembly of bodhisattvas and the great assembly of gods, the Bodhisattva then addressed the gathering: “Friends, the family into which a bodhisattva takes his final birth must have sixty-four excellent qualities. What are these sixty-four qualities?
“This family must be noble and it must be known by all. It must not be petty or prone to violence. It must be of a good caste and good clan. It must have excellent marital unions, with excellent marital unions in the past, and marital unions between individuals who are pure. These marital unions must be between people who are both pure, well-known by all, and renowned for their great power. This family must have many men and women. It must be fearless, not base or cowardly. [F.15.b] It must not be greedy, but disciplined. It must be wise and watched over by ministers. This family must be creative and thereby enjoy worldly pleasures. This family should be steadfast in its friendships and safeguard the lives of all the beings throughout the animal kingdom.  They must have gratitude and know how to conduct themselves appropriately. They must not be moved by ambition, anger, ignorance, or fear. They must be afraid of engaging in negative deeds. They must not dwell in ignorance. This family must be benevolent and industrious. It must be inspired to give, be generous, and remember the kindness of others. They must be physically strong, with great power and strength, indeed supreme strength. They must make offerings to the sages, to the gods, and to stūpas, and also pay homage to their ancestors. They must not hold grudges.
“This family must be renowned throughout the ten directions and have a vast retinue. It must not be divided. It must be peerless. This family must be the most senior and the most illustrious among all families. It must be powerful, and renowned as such. They must respect their fathers, mothers, mendicants, and priests. They must have great stores of treasure and grain. They must have a great deal of gold, and many jewels, gems, pearls, lapis lazuli, conches, crystals, corals, fine gold, silver, and many other riches and belongings. They must have many elephants, horses, camels, oxen, and [F.16.a] sheep. They must have many male servants, female servants, officials, and workers. This family must be difficult to defeat. It must accomplish all of its aims. It must be a family of universal monarchs. It must be aided, in great measure, by the root virtues accumulated in the past. It must be descended from a noble family, a family of bodhisattvas.  Indeed this family must be irreproachable when it comes to any accusations of faults related to one’s birth, such as those found in this entire world with its gods, demons, and brahmās, mendicants and priests. Friends, the family of a bodhisattva in his final existence must have these sixty-four qualities.
“Friends, the woman in whose womb a bodhisattva is conceived in his final existence must have thirty-two qualities. What are these thirty-two qualities? A bodhisattva in his final existence must be conceived in the womb of a woman known by all and steadfast in conduct. She must come from a good caste and a good family. She must have an excellent figure, an excellent name, and excellent proportions. She must not have given birth previously, and she must have excellent discipline. She must be generous, cheerful, and adroit. She must also be clear-minded, calm, fearless, learned, wise, honest, and without guile. She must be free from anger, jealousy, and greed. She must not be coarse, easily distracted, or prone to gossip. She must be patient and good-natured, with a good conscience and sense of modesty. She should have little attachment, anger, and ignorance. She should be free from the faults of womankind [F.16.b] and be a devoted wife. In his final existence, a bodhisattva must be conceived in the womb of a woman with all of these excellent qualities.
“Friends, a bodhisattva is not conceived in his mother’s womb while the moon is waning. A bodhisattva in his final existence must be conceived during a full moon. On the fifteenth day of the waxing moon, and in conjunction with the constellation Puṣya, the Bodhisattva will be conceived in the womb of a mother who is observing the poṣadha fast.” 
The bodhisattvas and gods, having heard the Bodhisattva explain the attributes of the pure family and the pure mother, thought to themselves, “Where can a family with the qualities described by this holy being be found?”
Pondering this question, they then thought, “The seat of the Śākyas is wealthy, prosperous, agreeable, and pleasant. It has bountiful harvests and is teeming with people. Its king, Śuddhodana, descends from pure families on both his mother’s and father’s side. His wife as well is pure. His deeds are not swayed by the afflictions, and he bears excellent physical characteristics. Extremely wise and endowed with brilliant merit, the king comes from an illustrious family and is descended from a line of universal monarchs. He has incalculable wealth and treasures and innumerable precious jewels. He believes in karma and does not hold negative views. He rules over all the lands of the Śākya clan and is honored and revered by all the merchants, householders, ministers, and people in his court. He is kind and handsome, neither too old nor too young. He has a fine body and every excellent quality. He is knowledgeable concerning crafts, astrology, the self, the Dharma, the truth, the world, and signs. Indeed he is a Dharma king who guides according to the Dharma. [F.17.a]
“The city of Kapilavastu is the abode of sentient beings who have generated basic virtues. All those who are born there are equal in fortune to the king. The wife of King Śuddhodana is Māyādevī, the daughter of Suprabuddhā, a ruler of the Śākya clan. She is wealthy and youthful. Indeed she is in the prime of life. She has an excellent figure and has not given birth. She has no sons or daughters. With a beautiful form, as pleasing to the eye as a finely drawn picture, she is bedecked with jewelry like a celestial maiden, free from the faults of womankind. She speaks the truth, with words that are soft, gentle, dependable, and altogether beyond reproach. Her voice is like that of the cuckoo; she is demure and speaks only sweet and pleasant words.
“Māyādevī is reserved, free of anger, pride, conceit, and arrogance. She does not get indignant or jealous; rather what she says is timely, and she gives generously. She is disciplined and devoted to her husband, unconcerned with other men. Her head, ears, and nose are perfectly symmetrical. Her hair, as black as a bee, frames a fine forehead and a beautiful brow. Always smiling, she speaks with sincerity, her words measured and pleasing to the ear.  She is quick to learn, honest and straightforward, free from guile, artifice, and deceit. She is modest and decent, constant and dependable, and not prone to idle or frivolous chatter. She has little attachment, anger, and ignorance; rather she is patient and of good character, carefully guarding her limbs, eyes, and mind. The movement of her limbs is gentle, and her skin is as soft as kācilindika cloth. Her eyes are as pure as the petals of a newly blossomed lotus flower. Her nose is well formed with a beautiful complexion. Her limbs are firm and gently curved like the arch of a rainbow. [F.17.b] Every part of her body is beautiful and free of faults. She is attractive, with lips as red as the bimba fruit, a tapered neck bedecked with jewelry, and teeth as white as jasmine and sumana flowers. She has sloping shoulders, tapering arms, a waist curved like the arch of a bow, perfect sides, and a deep navel. Her hips are smooth, wide, round, and firm. Her body is as firm as a vajra. She has thighs that are as well proportioned as an elephant’s trunk, and calves like an antelope’s. The palms of her hands and the soles of her feet are like liquid lac. She is attractive to others, with faultless eyes. Alluring to the mind and pleasing to the eye, her form is superior even when compared with other beautiful women. Indeed she is without peer. Since her form is like a magical emanation, the word māyā, meaning ‘magically emanated,’ was included in her name. She is also skilled in all the arts. Like a celestial maiden in the garden of Indra, Māyādevī lives in King Śuddhodana’s female quarters. She is fit to be the mother of the Bodhisattva. Thus it appears that the purity of the family described by the Bodhisattva can be seen only in the Śākya clan.”
On this topic, it is said:
This concludes the third chapter, on the purity of the family.
’phags pa rgya cher rol pa zhes bya ba theg pa chen po’i mdo (Āryalalitavistaranāmamahāyānasūtra). Toh 95, Degé Kangyur vol. 46 (mdo sde, kha), folios 1b–216b.
’phags pa rgya cher rol pa zhes bya ba theg pa chen po’i mdo. bka’ ’gyur (dpe bsdur ma) [Comparative Edition of the Kangyur], krung go’i bod rig pa zhib ’jug ste gnas kyi bka’ bstan dpe sdur khang (The Tibetan Tripitaka Collation Bureau of the China Tibetology Research Center). 108 volumes. Beijing: krung go’i bod rig pa dpe skrun khang (China Tibetology Publishing House), 2006–2009, vol 46, pp. 3–434.
Foucaux, Phillipe Édouard. Rgya Tch’er Rol Pa ou Développement des Jeux, Contenant l’Histoire du Bouddha Çakya-mouni. Première Partie—Texte Tibétain. Paris: Imprimerie Royale, 1847.
Hokazono, Kōichi (1994). Raritavisutara no Kenkyu. Volume 1 [study of Lalitavistara, chs. 1–14]. Tokyo: Daitō Shuppansha, 1994.
———— (2019a). Raritavisutara no Kenkyu. Volume 2 [study of Lalitavistara, chs. 15–21]. Tokyo: Daitō Shuppansha, 2019.
———— (2019b). Raritavisutara no Kenkyu. Volume 3 [study of Lalitavistara, chs. 22–27]. Tokyo: Daitō Shuppansha, 2019.
Lefmann, Salomon. Lalita Vistara. Halle: Verlag der Buchhandlung des Waisenhauses, 1882.
Mitra, R. L. (1853–1877). The Lalita Vistara or Memoirs of the Early Life of S’a’kya Siñha. Bibliotheca Indica: A Collection of Oriental Works, Old Series, nos. 51, 73, 143, 144, 145, 237. Calcutta: Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1853–1877.
Bays, Gwendolyn. The Voice of the Buddha, The Beauty of Compassion: The Lalitavistara Sutra. Tibetan Translation Series, vol. 2. Berkeley, CA: Dharma Publishing, 1983.
Foucaux, Phillipe Édouard (1848). Rgya Tch’er Rol Pa ou Développement des Jeux, Contenant l’Histoire du Bouddha Çakya-mouni: Traduit sur la version Tibétaine du Bkahhgyour, et revu sur l’original Sanscrit (Lalitavistara). Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, 1848.
———— (1870). Étude sur le Lalita Vistara pour une édition critique du texte sanskrit, précédée d’ un coup d’oeil sur la publication des livres bouddhiques en Europe et dans l’Inde. Paris: Maisonneuve, 1870.
———— (1884). Le Lalitavistara, Développement des Jeux: l’histoire traditionnelle de la vie du Bouddha Çakyamuni. Première partie. Annales du Musée Guimet, vol. 6 Paris: Ernest Leroux, 1884.
———— (1892). Le Lalitavistara, Développement des Jeux: l’histoire traditionnelle de la vie du Bouddha Çakyamuni. Seconde partie: notes, variantes, et index. Annales du Musée Guimet, vol. 19. Paris: Ernest Leroux, 1892.
Lefmann, Salomon (1874). Lalitavistara: Erzählung von dem Leben und der Lehre des Çâkya Simha. Berlin: Dümmler, 1874.
Lenz, Robert. “Analyse du Lalita-Vistara-Pourana, l’un des principaux ouvrages sacrés des Bouddhistes de l’Asie centrale, contenant la vie de leur prophète, et écrit en Sanscrit.” In Bulletin Scientifique publié par l’Académie impériale des Sciences de Saint-Pétersbourg, I.7:49–51; I.8:57–63; I.9:71–72; I.10:75–78; I.11:87–88; I.12:92–96; I.13:97–99. St. Petersburg: Académie impériale des sciences, 1836.
Miller, Robert. The Chapter on a Schism in the Saṅgha (Saṅghabhedavastu, Toh 1-1). 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha, forthcoming.
Mitra, R. L. (1881–1886). The Lalita Vistara or Memoirs of the Early Life of S’a’kya Siñha, Translated from the Original Sanskrit. Bibliotheca Indica: A Collection of Oriental Works, New Series, nos. 455, 473, 575. Calcutta: Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1881–1886. Republished, Delhi: Sri Satguru Publications, 1998.
Silk, Jonathan A. “Serious Play: Recent Scholarship on the Lalitavistara.” In Indo-Iranian Journal 65, pp. 267–301. Leiden: Brill, 2022.
Vaidya, P. L. Lalitavistara. Buddhist Sanskrit Texts, vol. 1. Darbhanga: The Mithila Institute, 1958.
Winternitz, Maurice (1927). A History of Indian Literature. 3rd ed. Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal, 1991, 2:249–56.
Goswami, Bijoya. Lalitavistara. Bibliotheca Indica Series, vol. 320. Calcutta: The Asiatic Society, 2001.
Khosla, Sarla. Lalitavistara and the Evolution of Buddha Legend. New Delhi: Galaxy Publications, 1991.
Thomas, E. J. “The Lalitavistara and Sarvastivada.” Indian Historical Quarterly 16:2 (1940): 239–45.