The White Lotus of the Good Dharma
- Yeshé De
Degé Kangyur, vol. 51 (mdo sde, ja), folios 1.b–180.b
Translated by Peter Alan Roberts
under the patronage and supervision of 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha
The White Lotus of the Good Dharma, popularly known as the Lotus Sūtra, is taught by Buddha Śākyamuni on Vulture Peak to an audience that includes bodhisattvas from countless realms, as well as bodhisattvas who emerge from under the ground, from the space below this world. Buddha Prabhūtaratna, who has long since passed into nirvāṇa, appears within a floating stūpa to hear the sūtra, and Śākyamuni enters the stūpa and sits beside him. The Lotus Sūtra is celebrated, particularly in East Asia, for its presentation of crucial elements of the Mahāyāna tradition, such as the doctrine that there is only one yāna, or “vehicle”; the distinction between expedient and definite teachings; and the notion that the Buddha’s life, enlightenment, and parinirvāṇa were simply manifestations of his transcendent buddhahood, while he continues to teach eternally. A recurring theme in the sūtra is its own significance in teaching these points during past and future eons, with many passages in which the Buddha and bodhisattvas such as Samantabhadra describe the great benefits that come from devotion to it, the history of its past devotees, and how it is the Buddha’s ultimate teaching, supreme over all other sūtras.
The White Lotus of the Good Dharma Sūtra was translated from Tibetan with reference to the Sanskrit by Peter Alan Roberts. Ling Lung Chen was the consultant for the Chinese versions. Emily Bower was the project manager and editor. Ben Gleason was the proofreader.
The translation was completed under the patronage and supervision of 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha.
The generous sponsorship of May & George Gu, which helped make the work on this translation possible, is most gratefully acknowledged.
Then Brother Subhūti, Brother Mahākātyāyana, Mahākāśyapa, and Mahāmaudgalyāyana, having heard from the Bhagavān this kind of Dharma that they had never heard before, and having heard directly from the Bhagavān the prophecy of Brother Śāriputra’s attainment of the highest, supreme enlightenment, were amazed, astonished, and overjoyed.
At that time they rose from their seats, approached the Bhagavān, uncovered one shoulder, knelt on their right knees, and with palms together in homage to the Bhagavān, looking directly at the Bhagavān, they inclined their bodies, they bowed their bodies, they bowed well, bowed perfectly.
They said to the Bhagavān, “Bhagavān, we are old, aged, and decrepit. We are esteemed to be the elders in the saṅgha of bhikṣus. We are old, infirm, and are said to have attained nirvāṇa. [F.39.b] Bhagavān, we do not make the effort to attain unsurpassable complete enlightenment. We do not have the strength to make that effort.
“When the Bhagavān teaches the Dharma, when the Bhagavān is seated for a long time, we too are in the assembly for that Dharma teaching. Bhagavān, while we are reverentially seated there for a long time, we have pains in our limbs and other parts of our bodies, and pains in our main and secondary joints.
“Therefore, Bhagavān, although we express all the emptiness, absence of attributes, and absence of aspiration in the Dharma that the Bhagavān is teaching, we have not hoped for the display of the buddha realms, the play of bodhisattvas, or the play of tathāgatas that are in these dharmas of the Buddha.219 Why is that? Bhagavān, we have escaped from the three realms and we are said to have attained nirvāṇa. Also we are old and decrepit.
“Therefore, Bhagavān, even though we have taught and instructed other bodhisattvas in the highest, complete enlightenment, we ourselves, Bhagavān, have not given rise to a single wish for such a thing.220 Bhagavān, we were amazed and astonished to hear from the Bhagavān just now the highest, complete enlightenment being prophesied even for the śrāvakas.
“Bhagavān, today we have unexpectedly heard words from the Tathāgata of a kind that we have never heard before, which is a great gain. Bhagavān, we have obtained a great jewel; Bhagavān, we have obtained a priceless great jewel. Bhagavān, we have obtained this kind of jewel without searching221 for it, without seeking it, without thinking of it, and without wishing for it.
“Bhagavān, it is like the following analogy. A person leaves his father, and having left him, goes to another land. Bhagavān, for many years, for twenty, thirty, forty, until fifty years, he is gone away and has turned into a grown man. He becomes a beggar and searches for sustenance. In order to have food and clothes he travels in every direction in many other lands. His father has come to one of these other lands. The father has much property, grain, treasure, and storehouses. He has much gold, silver, jewels, pearls, beryls, conches, crystals, corals, and gold and silver plate. He has many female slaves, male slaves, workers, and hirelings. He has many elephants, horses, carriages, cattle, and sheep. He has many servants. He is a wealthy man in that great land. He has considerable revenues, interest from loans, and farming and trading businesses.
“Then, Bhagavān, the poor man, seeking food and clothes, wanders through a succession of villages, towns, market towns, districts, countries, and capitals, and at last arrives at the town where lives his father, who has much property, grain, treasure, and storehouses. The father always thinks of his son who has been missing for fifty years. yet, although he thinks of him, he says nothing of this to anyone else, but sorrows privately. He thinks to himself, ‘I have become old and decrepit. I have much property, grain, treasure, and storehouses. [F.40.b] But I do not have even one son. When my time comes to an end, will not all of this be without an owner and be dispersed?’ In this way he thinks again and again of his son. ‘Alas! If only my son could take possession of this accumulation of wealth, I would be free of sadness.’
“Then, Bhagavān, the poor man, wandering in search of food and clothes, comes to the residence of the man who has much money, gold, property, grain, treasure, and storehouses.
“Bhagavān, the poor man’s father is at the entrance to his home, accompanied by a great assembly of brahmins, kṣatriyas, vaiśyas, and śūdras gazing upon him. He is seated in great wealth upon a lion throne with a footstool, adorned in gold and silver. He is being fanned with yak-tail whisks, there is a canopy spread above him, the ground is bestrewn with pearls and flowers, and strings of jewels are hung as decorations.
“Bhagavān, the poor man sees his father seated among such wealth at the entrance of his own residence encircled by a great crowd of householders as his attendants. As soon as he sees him he is shocked, frightened, afraid, and the hairs on his body stand on end. Terrified, he thinks, ‘I have suddenly come across this king or great minister. There is no reason for me to be here. I shall go to the street where the poor people live. There I can obtain food and clothing without any difficulty. I should not linger here. I do not want to be enslaved or seized,222 or encounter other kinds of harm.’
“However, Bhagavān, the wealthy man, seated on the lion throne at the entrance to his residence, [F.41.a] recognizes224 his son as soon as he sees him. The sight makes him happy, thrilled, overjoyed, and delighted. He thinks, ‘This is marvelous! I have seen the one who is to inherit my money, gold, property, grain, treasures, and storehouses. I have become old and aged. I have been thinking of this over and over, and he has arrived here!’
“Then, Bhagavān, that man who had been pained by longing for his son, in that very instant, that very moment, commands some people who can run quickly, ‘Friends, go and quickly bring that man to me.’
“So, Bhagavān, those men run quickly to catch the poor man.
“However, Bhagavān, the poor man then becomes frightened, terrified, and alarmed. The hairs on his body stand on end. In dismay, he yells and screams dreadful cries of distress. He cries out, ‘I have done you no wrong!’
“But those men forcibly bring back the poor man, wailing. The poor man, afraid, frightened, terrified, and alarmed, his hairs standing on end, in dismay, thinks, ‘I should not be killed!’225 He faints and falls to the ground, unconscious.226
“His father comes near and says to the men, ‘Don’t bring this man in this way!’ He sprinkles cold water on him and says nothing more. Why? The householder knows that the poor man aspires for something inferior, while he has a high status. He also knows that this is his son.
“At the time, Bhagavān, the householder, using a skillful method, does not at all declare, ‘This is my son!’
“That man listens to this order, goes to the poor man, and says to him, ‘Hey, you have been freed, go wherever you want to!’
“When the poor man hears those words he is amazed and astonished. He gets up from the ground, leaves that place, and goes to the street of the poor people in order to seek clothing and food.
“The householder then uses a skillful method in order to bring the poor man to himself. He employs two people of low caste and shoddy appearance228 and says to them, ‘Go to the man who came here, taking my instruction that he be given a daily wage229 to induce him to work in my home. If he asks, “What work can I do?” say to him, “You can work with the two of us clearing away the rubbish heap.” ’
“So the two men go looking for the poor man, and they perform their task. Those two men and the poor man are then employed by the wealthy man and clear away the rubbish heap in his residence. They make their home in a straw hut beside the wealthy man’s house.
“The rich man, through a round window, sees his son clearing away the rubbish, and seeing him he is again astonished. The householder then takes off his garlands and jewelry, takes off his soft, clean, beautiful clothes, puts on dirty clothes, and comes down out from his residence, holding a basket in his left hand, and with his limbs dirtied with earth.
“He greets his son from afar, and approaches him. Having approached, he says, ‘Don’t stay here, take baskets and carry the rubbish away.’ Using this method he is able to converse with his son. Then he says, ‘Oh, you should work here. You should not go elsewhere. I shall give you a greater wage. [F.42.a] Whatever it is you need you can unhesitatingly ask me for it, whether it is the price of a bowl, the price of a water pot, the price of a cooking pot, the price of wood, the price of salt, or the price of food or clothes. I have an old cloth, sir, and if you need it ask for it and I will give to you. Oh, whatever kind of utensil it is that you need, sir, I will give it to you. You230 be happy! Think of me as if I were your father. Why? It is because I am older and you are younger. You have done much work for me by clearing away the rubbish heap. My, you have done this work without deceit, deception, dishonesty, pride, hypocrisy, or ingratitude. My, I have not seen you to have even one fault, such as I have perceived in other men who work. From this day on you will be like my own son born from me.’
“Then, Bhagavān, that householder calls that that poor man ‘son,’ and the poor man thinks of the householder as being his father.
“Bhagavān, the householder who longed for his son in that way has him clearing away the rubbish heaps for twenty years. After twenty years have passed, the poor man has no anxiety about coming in and out of the householder’s residence, and lives there in the straw hut.
“By that time, Bhagavān, the householder has become weaker, and he perceives that he is approaching the time of his death. He says to the poor man, ‘Oh, you, come here! I have much money, gold, property, grain, treasure, and storehouses. I have become very weak. I wish to give them to [F.42.b] someone who will take them, who will preserve them. All this you should know. Why is that? Just as I have been the owner of this wealth, so are you. You will not waste anything of mine.’
“So, Bhagavān, the poor man in this way comes to know of that householder’s great amount of money, gold, property, grain, treasure, and storehouses. He has no desire for them. He does not ask for any of it, not even something the value of a prastha of flour.231 He continues to live in the straw hut, thinking the thoughts of a poor person.
“Then, Bhagavān, the householder sees that his son has developed, and is capable of preserving his wealth; he sees that his mind is refined, such that his outlook is heightened232 and he is distressed by his previous poor man’s way of thinking—he is disgusted by it, ashamed of it, and loathes it.
“As he is approaching the time of his death he summons the poor man and presents him to a great gathering of many kinsmen. Then he openly pronounces in the presence of the king, the ministers, the townspeople, and the citizens of the land, ‘Listen, all of you, this is my own rightful son, of such and such a town, whom I lost fifty years ago. His name is such and such. My name is such and such. In order to find him I came here from that town. This is my son. I am his father. Whatever it is that I own, all of it I bestow upon him. He has full knowledge of even the least of the possessions that I have.’
“Then, Bhagavān, the poor man, hearing at that time those words, is amazed and astonished. He thinks, ‘Suddenly I have obtained such money, gold, property, grain, treasure, and storehouses!’
“Bhagavān, we are pained by the three sufferings. What are those three? They are the suffering of suffering, the suffering of the composite, and the suffering of change. Within saṃsāra, we have had an inferior aspiration. Therefore, Bhagavān, we have contemplated many Dharma teachings that are similar to a rubbish heap, and we have been devoted to them, intent upon them, and dedicated to them.
“Bhagavān, we have sought and requested nirvāṇa alone, just like that daily wage. Therefore, Bhagavān, we have been satisfied by the attainment of nirvāṇa. We thought that we had obtained a great deal, and were devoted to, intent upon, and dedicated to these dharmas from the Tathāgata.
“Bhagavān, through a skillful method you have bestowed upon us our inheritance of the Tathāgata’s treasure of wisdom.
“Bhagavān, beginning with the Tathāgata’s wisdom, we have explained his whole immense Dharma teaching to the bodhisattva mahāsattvas; we have revealed, taught, and explained the Tathāgata’s wisdom, Bhagavān, but we ourselves have had no aspiration for it. Why is that? The Tathāgata, with a skillful method, knew our aspirations, and we did not know, did not understand when the Bhagavān said that we are true sons of the Tathāgata.234 [F.43.b]
“The Bhagavān has made us remember our inheritance of the Tathāgata’s wisdom. Why is that? It is because we are true sons of the Tathāgata, but we have also had inferior aspiration. If the Bhagavān sees strength in our aspiration, the Bhagavān declares us to be bodhisattvas.
“The Bhagavān has given us two tasks to perform: in the presence of the bodhisattvas we are said to be those with inferior aspiration; and this, in turn, inspires them to the enlightenment of buddhahood. When the Bhagavān sees strength in our motivation then he declares this.
“In this way, Bhagavān, we say, ‘We have unexpectedly, without desiring it, obtained the jewel of omniscience that we did not long for, did not search for, did not seek for, did not think of, and did not wish for, just like the sons of the Tathāgata.’ ”
This concludes “The Aspiration,” the fourth chapter of the Dharma teaching of “The White Lotus of the Good Dharma.”
dam chos padma dkar po’i mdo (Saddharmapuṇḍarīkasūtra) [The White Lotus of the Good Dharma]. Toh 113, Degé Kangyur, 103 vols. New Delhi: Karmapae Chodhey Gyalwae Sungrab Patrun Khang, 1976–79, vol. 51 (mdo sde, ja), folios 1a–180b.
———. bka’ ’gyur (dpe bsdur ma) [Comparative Edition of the Kangyur], krung go’i bod rig pa zhib ’jug ste gnas kyi bka’ bstan dpe sdur khang (The Tibetan Tripitaka Collation Bureau of the China Tibetology Research Center). 108 volumes. Beijing: krung go’i bod rig pa dpe skrun khang (China Tibetology Publishing House), 2006–2009, vol. 51 (mdo sde, ja), pp. 3–427.
———. Choné Kangyur (co ne bka’ ’gyur). 108 vols. Choné: co ne par khang, 1926, vol. 31 (mdo sde, ja), folios 1–212b.
———. Lhasa Kangyur (lha sa bka’ ’gyur). 100 vols. Lhasa: zhol bka’ ’gyur par khang, 1934, vol. 53 (mdo sde, ja), folios 1b–285b.
———. Narthang Kangyur (snar thang bka’ ’gyur). 102 vols. Narthang: snar thang par khang, eighteenth century, vol. 53 (mdo sde, ja), folios 1b–281b.
———. Stok Palace Kangyur (stog pho brang bris ma bka’ ’gyur). 109 vols. Leh: smad rtsis shes rig dpe mdzod, 1975–80. vol. 67 (mdo sde, ma), folios 1a–270b.
———. Urga Kangyur (ur ga bka’ ’gyur). New Delhi: International Academy of Indian Culture, 1990–94. vol. 51 (mdo sde, ja), folios 1a–180b.
Khangkar, Tsultrim Kelsang (ed.) bod gyur dam pa’i chos padma dkar po zhes bya ba theg pa chen po’i mdo: Tibetan Translation of Saddharmapuṇḍarīka-sūtra. Nyin bod nang rig deb grangs (Japanese and Tibetan Buddhist Culture Series) XI. Kyoto: Tibetan Buddhist Culture Association, 2009.
Zhongxin, Jiang. Sanskrit Lotus Sutra Fragments from the Lüshun Museum Collection. Tokyo: Sōka Gakkai, 1997.
Vaidya, P. L. Saddharmapuṇḍarīkasūtra. Darbhanga: The Mithila Institute of Post-Graduate Studies and Research in Sanskrit Learning, 1960.
Watanabe, Shōkō. Saddharmapuṇḍarīka Manuscripts Found in Gilgit. Tokyo: Reiyukai, 1972–75.
Wogihara, Unrai and Tsuchida, Chikao. Saddharmapuṇḍarīka-sūtram: Romanized and Revised Text of the Bibliotheca Buddhica publication by consulting a Sanskrit Ms. & Tibetan and Chinese translations. Tōkyō: Seigo-Kenkyūkai, 1934–35.
Borsig, Margareta von. Lotos-Sutra: Das Große Erleuchtungsbuch des Buddhismus. Freiburg: Herder, 2003.
Burnouf, Eugene. Le lotus de la bonne loi. Paris: L’imprimerie Nationale, 1852.
Hurvitz, Leon. Scripture of the Lotus Blossom of the Fine Dharma. New York: Columbia University Press, 1976.
Katō, Bunnō. “The Sutra of the Lotus Flower of the Wonderful Law.” In The Threefold Lotus Sutra, translated by Bunnō Katō, Yoshirō Tamura, and Kōjirō Miyasaka, with revisions by W. E. Soothill, Wilhelm Schiffer, and Pier P. Del Campana, 18–213. New York and Tokyo: Weatherhill and Kosei, 1993.
Kern, H. Saddharma-Puṇḍarīka or the Lotus of the Good Law. Sacred Books of the East XXII. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1884.
Kubo, Tsugunari and Akira Yuyama. The Lotus Sutra. Berkeley: Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research (revised second edition), 2007.
Montgomery, Daniel B. The Lotus Sutra: The Sutra of the Lotus Flower of the Wonderful Dharma. Tokyo: Nichiren Shu Headquarters, 1991.
Murano, Senchū. The Lotus Sutra: Sutra of the Lotus of the Wonderful Dharma. Hayward, CA: Nichiren Buddhist International Center, 1974.
Reeves, Gene. The Lotus Sutra: A Contemporary Translation of a Buddhist Classic. Somerville, MA: Wisdom Publications, 2008.
Soothill, W.E. The Lotus of the Wonderful Law, or The Lotus Gospel. Richmond: Curzon Press, 1987.
Watson, Burton. The Lotus Sutra. New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.
rgya cher rol pa’i mdo (Lalitavistarasūtra, Toh 95. Degé Kangyur vol. 46 (mdo sde, kha), folios 1b–216b. English translation in Dharmachakra Translation committee (2013).
ting nge ’dzin gyi rgyal po’i mdo (Samādhirājasūtra), Toh 127, Degé Kangyur vol. 55 (mdo sde, da), folios 1a–175b. English translation in Roberts (2018).
de bzhin gshegs pa thams cad kyi gsang ba’i mdo (Tathāgataghuyakasūtra) [The Secret of the Tathāgatas Sūtra]. Toh 443, Degé Kangyur vol. 81 (rgyud, ca), folios 90a–157b.
phal po che’i mdo (Avataṁsakasūtra) [A Multitude of Buddhas Sūtra]. Toh 44, Degé Kangyur vols. 35–38 (phal chen, ka–a), folios ka 1a–nga 363a.
lang kar gshegs pa’i mdo (Laṅkāvatārasūtra) [The Entry into Laṅka Sutra]. Toh 107, Degé Kangyur vol. 49 (mdo sde, ca), folios 56a–191b.
shes rab pha rol tu phyin pa brgyad stong pa (Aṣṭasāhasrikāprajñāpāramitā) [The Perfection of Wisdom in Eight Thousand Verses]. Toh 12, Degé Kangyur vol. 33 (brgyad stong pa, ka), folios 1b–286a.
sa bcu pa’i mdo (Daśabhūmikasūtra) [The Sūtra of the Ten Bhūmis]. Chapter 31, in Toh 44, Degé Kangyur vol. 36 (phal chen, kha), folios 166a–283a. English translation in Roberts (2021).
gser ’od dam pa’i mdo (Suvarṇaprabhāsūtra) [The Golden Light Sūtra]. Toh 556, Degé Kangyur vol. 89 (rgyud, pa), folios 151b–273a.
Abhayākaragupta. thub pa’i dgongs pa’i rgyan (Munimatālaṁkāra). Toh 3903, Degé Tengyur vol. 210 (dbu ma, a), folios 73b–293a.
Asaṅga. theg pa chen po rgyud bla ma’i bstan bcos rnam par bshad pa (Mahāyānottaratantraśāstravyākhyā). Toh 4025, Degé Tengyur vol. 225 (sems tsam, phi), folios 74b–129a.
Candrakīrti. dbu ma la ’jug pa’i bshad pa (Madhyamakāvatārabhāṣya). Toh 3862, Degé Tengyur vol. 204 (dbu ma, ’a), folios 220b–348a.
———. byang chub sems dpa’i rnal ’byor spyod pa bzhi brgya pa’i ’grel pa (Bodhisattvayogacaryācatuḥśatakaṭīkā) Toh 3865, Degé Tengyur vol. 205 (dbu ma, ya), folios 30b–239a.
Daṃṣṭrāsena, Vasubandhu, or neither. shes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa ’bum pa dang nyi khri lnga stong pa dang khri brgyad stong pa’i rgya cher bshad pa (Śatasāhasrikāpañcaviṁśatisāhasrikaṣṭādaśasāhasrikāprajñāpāramitābṛhaṭṭīkā). Toh 3808, Degé Tengyur vol. 93 (sher phyin, pha), folios 1a–292b. English translation in Sparham (2022).
Dharmamitra. tshig rab tu gsal ba (Prasphuṭapadā). Toh 3796, Degé Tengyur vol. 87 (sher phyin, nya), folios 1a–110a.
Jānavajra. de bzhin gshegs pa’i snying po’i rgyan (Tathāgatahṛdayālaṁkāra). Toh 4019, Degé Tengyur vol. 224 (mdo ’grel, pi), folios 1a–310a.
Kamalaśīla. shes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa bdun brgya pa rgya cher bshad pa (Saptaśatikāprajñāpāramitāṭīkā). Toh 3815, Degé Tengyur vol. 95 (sher phyin, ma), folios 89a–178a.
Maitreya-Asaṅga. theg pa chen po rgyud bla ma’i bstan bcos (Mahāyānottaratantraśāstra) [A Mahāyāna Treatise on the Supreme Continuum]. Toh 4024, Degé Tengyur vol. 225 (sems tsam, phi), folios 54b–73a.
Nāgārjuna. mdo kun las btus pa (Sūtrasamuccaya). Toh 3934, Degé Tengyur vol. 212 (dbu ma, ki), folios 148b–215a.
Saitsalak (sa’i rtsa lag, Kuiji, Pṛthivībandhu). dam pa’i chos padma dkar po’i ’grel pa. Toh 4017, Degé Tengyur, vol. 120 (mdo ’grel, di), folios 175b–302a.
———. dam pa’i chos padma dkar po’i ’grel pa. bstan ’gyur (dpe bsdur ma) [Comparative Edition of the Tengyur], krung go’i bod rig pa zhib ’jug ste gnas kyi bka’ bstan dpe sdur khang (The Tibetan Tripitaka Collation Bureau of the China Tibetology Research Center). 120 volumes. Beijing: krung go’i bod rig pa dpe skrun khang (China Tibetology Publishing House), 1994–2008, vol. 69 (mdo sde, di, vol. 135), pp. 476–826.
Śāntideva. bslab pa kun las btus pa (Śikṣāsamuccaya). Toh 3940, Degé Tengyur vol. 111 (dbu ma, khi), folios 3a–194b.
Vasubandhu. theg pa chen po bsdus pa’i ’grel pa (Mahāyānasaṁgrahabhāṣya). Toh 4050, Degé Tengyur vol. 225 (sems tsam, yi), folios 121b–190a.
Wantsik (wan tshig, Yuan Tso). dgongs pa zab mo nges par ’grel pa (Gambhīrasaṁdhinirmocanasūtraṭīkā). Toh 4016, Degé Tengyur vols. 220–22 (mdo ’grel, ti–ti), folios ti 1a–di 175a.
Lodrö Gyaltsen (blo gros rgyal mtshan). dam chos pad dkar gyi tshig don la gzhan gyi log par rtog pa dgag pa. In Sa skya bka’ ’bum vol. 15, Kathmandu: Sachen International, 2006, folios 469–485.
Butön Rinchen Drup (bu ston rin chen grub). bde bar gshegs pa’i bstan pa’i gsal byed chos kyi ’byung gnas gsung rab rin po che’i mdzod. In The Collected Works of Bu-ston. Edited by Lokesh Chandra from the collections of Raghu Vira. 28 volumes. Zhol bka’ ’gyur par khang edition. New Delhi: International Academy of Indian Culture, 1965–71, 633–1056.
Changkya Rölpai Dorjé (lcang skya rol pa’i rdo rje). dam chos pad ma dkar po’i kha byang. In lcang skya rol pa’i rdo rje’i gsung ’bum, vol. 5 (ca), Dharamsala: Library of Tibetan Works and Archives, 2003, folios 525–532.
Pekar Zangpo (pad dkar bzang po). ’phags pa dam chos padma dkar po’i mdo. In mdo sde spyi’i rnam bzhag, Beijing: mi rigs dpe skrun khang, 2006, pp. 187–189.
Abbott, Terry Rae. “Vasubandhu’s Commentary on the Saddharmapuṇḍarīkasūtra: A Study of its History and Significance.” PhD diss., University of California at Berkeley, 1985.
Boucher, Daniel. “Dharmarakṣa and the Transmission of Buddhism to China.” Asia Major 19 (2006): 13–37.
Deeg, Max. “The Saṅgha of Devadatta: Fiction and History of a Heresy in the Buddhist Tradition.” Journal of the International College for Advanced Buddhist Studies (March 31, 1999): 195–230.
Dessein, Bart. “The Mahāsāṃghikas and the Origins of Mahāyāna Buddhism: Evidence Provided in the *Abhidharmamahāvibhāṣaśāstra.” The Eastern Buddhist 40, no. 1 (2009): 25–61.
Dharmachakra Translation Committee, trans. The Play in Full (Lalitavistara, Toh 95). 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha, 2013.
Galloway, Brian. “Thus have I heard: At one time….” Indo-Iranian Journal 34, no. 2 (April 1991): 87–104.
Groner, Paul and Jacqueline I. Stone. “Editors’ Introduction: The Lotus Sutra in Japan.” Japanese Journal of Religious Studies vol. 41, no. 1 (2014): 1–23.
Hanh, Thich Nhat. Peaceful Action, Open Heart: Lessons from the Lotus Sutra. Berkeley: Parallax Press, 2008.
Heirman, Ann. “Yijing’s View on the Bhikṣunīs’ Standard Robes.” Chung-Hwa Buddhist Journal 21 (2008): 145–158.
Hinüber, Oskar von. “A Saddharmapuṇḍarīkasūtra Manuscript from Khotan: The Gift of a Pious Khotanese Family.” Journal of Oriental Studies 24 (2014): 134–156.
———. “The Saddharmapuṇḍarīkasūtra at Gilgit: Manuscripts, Worshippers, and Artists.” Journal of Oriental Studies22 (2012): 52–67.
———. Bronzes of the Ancient Kingdom of Gilgit and Royal Patronage in Early North-Western India and Pakistan. Online lecture: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (2010).
Jamieson, R. C. “Sanskrit Lotus Sutra Manuscripts from Cambridge University Library (Add. 1682 and Add. 1683).” Journal of Oriental Studies 12, no. 6 (2002): 165–173.
Jeffus, Ryusho. Lotus Sutra Practice Guide: 35-Day Practice Outline. Charlotte, NC: Myosho-ji, 2012.
Karashima, Seishi. “Who Composed the Mahāyāna Scriptures?—the Mahāsāṃghikas and Vaitulya Scriptures.” ARIRIAB XVIII (2015): 113–162.
———. “Some Features of the Language of the Saddharmapuṇḍarīkasūtra.” Indo-Iranian Journal 44 (2001): 207–230.
Kim, Young-ho. Tao-sheng’s Commentary on the Lotus Sūtra: A Study and Translation. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1990.
Lancaster, L. R. The Korean Buddhist Canon: A Descriptive Catalogue.
Laufer, Berthold. “Sanskrit Karketana.” Mémoires de la Société de Linguistique 22 (1922): 43–46.
Lopez Jr., Donald S. The Lotus Sutra: A Biography. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2016.
Miller, Robert, et al. The Chapter on Going Forth (Toh 1, ch. 1). 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha, 2018.
Mookerji, Radha Kumud. Ancient Indian Education: Brahmanical and Buddhist. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1989.
Reeves, Gene. The Stories of the Lotus Sutra. Somerville, MA: Wisdom Publications, 2010.
Roberts, Peter Alan, trans. The King of Samādhis Sūtra (Samādhirājasūtra, Toh 127). 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha, 2018.
———, trans. The Ten Bhūmis (Daśabhūmika, Toh 44-31). 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha, 2021.
Sparham, Gareth, trans. The Long Explanation of the Noble Perfection of Wisdom in One Hundred Thousand, Twenty-Five Thousand, and Eighteen Thousand Lines (*Āryaśatasāhasrikāpañcaviṃśatisāhasrikāṣṭādaśasāhasrikāprajñāpāramitābṛhaṭṭīkā, Toh 3808). 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha, 2022.
Schoening, Jeffrey. “Translated Sutra Commentaries in Tibet.” In Tibetan Literature: Studies in Genre, edited by José Cabezón and Roger Jackson, 111–124. Ithaca, NY: Snow Lion, 1996.
Silk, Jonathan Alan. “The Yogācāra Bhikṣu.” In Beiju: Buddhist Studies in Honor of Professor Gadjin M. Nagao, edited by J. Silk, 256–314. Studies in the Buddhist Traditions 3. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1997.
Suguro, Shinjō. Introduction to the Lotus Sutra. Fremont, CA: Jain Publishing Company, 1998.
Tanabe, George J. and Willa Jane Tanabe. The Lotus Sutra in Japanese Culture. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1989.
Teiser, Stephen F. and Jacqueline I. Stone. Readings of the Lotus Sūtra. New York: Columbia University Press, 2009.
Tiantai Lotus Texts. BDK English Tripiṭaka Series. Berkeley, CA: Bukkyō Dendō Kyōkai America, 2013, 93–149.
Tola, Fernando and Carmen Dragonetti. Buddhist Positiveness: Studies on the Lotus Sūtra. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 2009.
Winder, Marianne. “Vaidurya.” Studies on Indian Medical History (1987): 85–94.
Yuyama, Akira. A Bibliography of the Sanskrit Texts of the “Saddharmapuṇḍarīkasūtra.” Canberra: Faculty of Asian Studies in Association with Australian National University Press, 1970.
Zengwen, Yang. “Saddharmapundarikasutra in Chinese History and its Significance in the 21st Centry.” Journal of Oriental Studies vol. 10 (2000): 10–20.
Zhongxin, Jiang. Sanskrit Lotus Sutra Fragments from the Lüshun Museum Collection (Tokyo: Sōka Gakkai, 1997).