The King of Samādhis Sūtra
The Entry into the City
Degé Kangyur, vol. 55 (mdo sde, da), folios 1.b–170.b
Translated by Peter Alan Roberts
under the patronage and supervision of 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha
First published 2018
Current version v 1.45.25 (2022)
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This sūtra, much quoted in later Buddhist writings for its profound statements especially on the nature of emptiness, relates a long teaching given by the Buddha mainly in response to questions put by a young layman, Candraprabha. The samādhi that is the subject of the sūtra, in spite of its name, primarily consists of various aspects of conduct, motivation, and the understanding of emptiness; it is also a way of referring to the sūtra itself. The teaching given in the sūtra is the instruction to be dedicated to the possession and promulgation of the samādhi, and to the necessary conduct of a bodhisattva, which is exemplified by a number of accounts from the Buddha’s previous lives. Most of the teaching takes place on Vulture Peak Mountain, with an interlude recounting the Buddha’s invitation and visit to Candraprabha’s home in Rājagṛha, where he continues to teach Candraprabha before returning to Vulture Peak Mountain. In one subsequent chapter the Buddha responds to a request by Ānanda, and the text concludes with a commitment by Ānanda to maintain this teaching in the future.
Translated from the Tibetan, with reference to Sanskrit editions, by Peter Alan Roberts. The Chinese consultant was Ling-Lung Chen. Edited by Emily Bower and Ben Gleason.
This translation has been completed under the patronage and supervision of 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha.
The generous donation of an anonymous donor, which helped make the work on this translation possible, is most gratefully acknowledged.
The Entry into the City
The Bhagavān then said to the youth Candraprabha, “Therefore, young man, you should be someone who makes practice essential, and always trains in that way. Why is that? Young man, bodhisattva mahāsattvas who make practice essential will not even find it difficult to attain the highest, complete enlightenment of perfect buddhahood, not to mention attaining this samādhi.”
Then the youth Candraprabha rose from his seat, removed his robe from one shoulder, and, kneeling on his right knee, [F.29.a] with palms placed together, bowed toward the Bhagavān and exclaimed, “Bhagavān, that teaching and instruction that the bhagavāns have taught well, presented well, and explained well to the bodhisattva mahāsattvas, the entire bodhisattva training that they have explained well and presented well is marvelous.
“Bhagavān, this is the scope of activity of the tathāgatas, not of the śrāvakas or pratyekabuddhas, let alone the tīrthikas.
“Bhagavān, I, too, will make practice essential, and without care for life or body I shall train as the tathāgatas have. Why is that? Bhagavān, I wish to train as the tathāgatas have. Bhagavān, I wish to attain the highest, complete enlightenment of perfect buddhahood. Bhagavān, I wish to eliminate the evil māras. Bhagavān, I wish to free all beings from all fear and all suffering.383 I pray that the Bhagavān will place his right hand upon my head.”
He said to the Bhagavān:
The Bhagavān placed upon Candraprabha’s head his right hand, which was adorned with many characteristics that were the result of many roots of merit, and which was of the color of divine gold.
As soon as the Bhagavān placed his right hand upon Candraprabha’s head, in that very instant, more indescribable than indescribably many hundred thousand quintillions of samādhi entranceways that arise from the perfection of wisdom were revealed to Candraprabha, such as the heroic,385 the treasury of space,386 the vajra-like,387 the speed of the mind,388 the revealing of all forms,389 [F.29.b] the ultimate absence of obscurations, the revealing of all tathāgatas,390 the consecration of all emptiness,391 and so on. Many entranceways to dhāraṇīs and liberations392 were revealed. He attained the knowledge of the joy and happiness that is described by the noble ones, of the countless vast number of beings in the deva realms, and the scope of experience of the buddhas and bodhisattvas.
It was said:
Then Candraprabha, full of joy and happiness and the knowledge of the countless, vast number of beings in the deva realms, and the scope of experience of the buddhas and bodhisattvas, rose from his seat, removed his robe from one shoulder, and, kneeling on his right knee, with palms placed together, he bowed toward the Bhagavān and recited these appropriate verses of praise:
When the youth Candraprabha had recited these appropriate verses of praise to the Bhagavān, he said to him, “Bhagavān, so that you may show me your compassion I pray that you, with your saṅgha of bodhisattvas and saṅgha of bhikṣus, will assent to eat your meal tomorrow at my home.
The Bhagavān, because of his compassion, by remaining silent assented to eat a meal together with his saṅgha of bodhisattvas and saṅgha of bhikṣus at the home of the youth Candraprabha.
The youth Candraprabha, knowing that the Bhagavān had assented by his silence, rose from his seat, removed his robe from one shoulder, bowed his head to the Bhagavān’s feet, circumambulated the Bhagavān three times, and departed from the Bhagavān’s presence.
The youth Candraprabha then went down from Vulture Peak Mountain, and at that time he perfectly adorned the entire road in between Vulture Peak Mountain and the great city of Rājagṛha.
As an offering to the Bhagavān he cleared a great, wide roadway so that it was free of grass, tree stumps, thorns, stones, pebbles, and gravel, and spread pure sand over it, so that it was as soft and pleasant to the touch as down, and made a pleasant sound. He covered it with flowers from all seasons, such as divine blue lotuses, red lotuses, night lotuses, white lotuses, water lilies, kachnar flowers, sambac jasmines, magnolias, bignonias, star jasmines, sesame flowers, ironwood flowers, and aśoka flowers. Parasols, banners, flags, flags of victory, precious arches,395 and canopies were set up along the road. [F.30.b] There were precious censers from which flowed the smoke of black agarwood.396 Arranged in different places were dancers and performers skilled in performing divine songs, dance, and music. Beautifully adorned men, women, boys, and girls were arranged holding paṇava drums,397 one-stringed lutes,398 lutes, flutes, mṛdaṅga drums,399 mukunda drums,400 and muraja drums.401 On both sides of the road tall palm trees were adorned with various divine jewels and a jingling network of bells made from Jambu River gold.402 There were many hundred thousand quintillions of pillars made of precious materials, and different kinds of trees of various heights and thicknesses made from the seven jewels, and on which were arranged the leaves, flowers, and fruits of all seasons.
Young Candraprabha adorned the road with many different precious arrangements.403 Then young Candraprabha descended from Vulture Peak and went to the great city of Rājagṛha, to his tall, vast, great, divine home. He reached there and he entered his home. He spent that night preparing a great amount of excellent, delicious404 food and drink, and creating food that had a hundred flavors. Then he sprinkled well the ground in the great city of Rājagṛha and swept it clean, scattered flower petals, perfumed it with incense, put up canopies, hung ribbons and wreaths of silk, and set up parasols, banners, and flags.
In that way he made the main road of Rājagṛha up to the town free of stones, pebbles, and gravel, scattered it with various flowers, and sprinkled it with sandalwood powder. He adorned the windows, porticoes, doors,405 roofs,406 lattices,407 and the crescent moons,408 and perfumed them with sandalwood. In that way he adorned the city of Rājagṛha with countless displays [F.31.b] and adorned his own house, too, with a variety of many adornments. He hung it with many precious strings of beads. He adorned it with the raiment of the Tuṣita deities and also beautified the grounds. He had many kinds of garlands and wreaths put up as adornments. He arranged a hundred thousand precious seats. In order to make offerings to the Bhagavān he placed in their center a lion throne of divine materials that surpassed the work of devas and humans. In the four directions he hung censers made of various precious materials, from which flowed the smoke of black agarwood. In that way the youth Candraprabha arranged his excellent home so that for the enjoyment of the Bhagavān there was the sound of divine songs, performances, and music; pure parasols and banners were erected; an audience of a hundred thousand devas, nāgas, yakṣas, gandharvas, asuras, garuḍas, kinnaras, mahoragas, humans, and nonhumans thronged it; and it was filled with many various kinds of precious flowers.
The young man Candraprabha, having adorned the great city of Rājagṛha and having perfectly beautified his own home, after the night was over, in the early morning, departed, accompanied by the music of hundreds of various kinds of instruments, with many millions of parasols, banners, and flags held high, and with an encircling vanguard of a great assembly of eight million quintillion bodhisattvas, their cupped hands filled with divine coral tree flowers. Among them were bodhisattvas with one life remaining, such as Avalokiteśvara, Mahāsthāmaprāpta, Gandhahasti, Ratnaketu, Dundubhisvara,410 Durabhisambhava, Mañjuśrī Kumārabhūta, Vīrasena, Subāhu, Ratnakusuma, Amoghadarśin, Maitreya, and others, accompanied by many adorned horses and elephants without riders that were being led along, with an assembly of countless people of the country, his own cupped hands filled with divine coral tree flowers; and they were accompanied by the enchanting, beautiful, harmonious sound of the laughter of the deities as they cried, “Oh, the bodhisattva’s great power! The bodhisattva’s great miracles! The bodhisattva’s great manifestations! The bodhisattva’s—a la la!”
He came out through the hot springs gateway411 of the great city of Rājagṛha and went toward Vulture Peak Mountain, and to the Bhagavān.
When he arrived, he bowed his head to the Bhagavān’s feet, circumambulated the Bhagavān three times,412 sprinkled the divine coral tree flowers that filled his cupped hands over the Bhagavān, and went to sit down to one side.
Maitreya and the other [F.32.b] bodhisattva mahāsattvas bowed their heads to the Bhagavān’s feet, circumambulated the Bhagavān three times, sprinkled the divine coral tree flowers that filled their cupped hands over the Bhagavān, and also sat down to one side.
Then the youth, who had sat to one side, rose from his seat, removed his robe from one shoulder, and, kneeling on his right knee, with palms placed together bowed toward the Bhagavān and said, “It is midday, Bhagavān, the time to eat. If the Bhagavān considers the time has come, then together with the saṅgha of bodhisattvas, the saṅgha of bhikṣus, and the devas, nāgas, yakṣas, gandharvas, asuras, rishis, garuḍas, kinnaras, mahoragas, kumbhāṇḍas, pretas, pūtanas, humans, and nonhumans who have great power, who are widely renowned for their great power and have great influence, come to the great city of Rājagṛha, as the time has come to eat the midday meal in my garden. Sugata, it is midday.413
Then the Bhagavān, who had known what the youth Candraprabha would request, addressed these lines of verse to him:
After speaking these lines,416 the Bhagavān arose from his seat. He put on his lower robe, picked up his Dharma robe and alms bowl, and with the great saṅgha of a hundred thousand bhikṣus, and accompanied by a multitude of bodhisattva mahāsattvas, he proceeded. Many hundreds of thousands of devas, nāgas, yakṣas, gandharvas, asuras, rishis, garuḍas, kinnaras, mahoragas, kumbhāṇḍas, pretas, pūtanas,417 humans, and nonhumans made offerings to him and praised him. Through his great buddha powers, his great buddha miracles, his great buddha manifestations, and his buddha conduct he radiated many quintillions418 of light rays. He emanated flocks of melodious, soft, and beautiful birds of many different shapes and colors, such as geese, cranes, ruddy shelducks, swans, partridges, peacocks, rollers,419 parrots,420 mynas, cuckoos, avadavats,421 and snipe, so that like devas in the sky, each with its own song, they emitted the sound of music.422 [F.33.b]
The yakṣa lords Surūpa, Indraketu, Vikaṭa, Bakula, Pāñcika, Śākyavardhana, and many quintillions of yakṣa lords holding pestles423 with both hands, offered many quintillions of huge, vast censers made of various divine precious materials, with handles of beryl, sapphire, crystal, and white coral, filled with uragasāra sandalwood, gośīrṣa sandalwood, vetiver, yellow sandalwood, Malaya sandalwood, red sandalwood, agarwood, and so on, and from which smoke flowed.
There were the superior kings of great power, renowned as having great power, from their own regions, accompanied by many divisions of perfectly adorned horses and elephants being led without their riders, chariots, and infantry,424 in lines marching in front, holding in their hands many streamers and precious garlands. The horses and elephants, even though they were being led along without riders, were proceeding magnificently and emitting beautiful cries.
The Bhagavān was accompanied on his right-hand side by Brahmā, who was making offerings to him and attending upon him, and on his left-hand side by Śakra, lord of the devas, and by countless devas with great power, who were renowned for their great power, who were mighty and illustrious, and whose bodies were adorned by excellent divine crowns, ornamented anklets, earrings, bracelets, flowers on their ears, bejeweled necklaces, and flower garlands. Their forms were made visible and they were holding coral tree flowers, asters, orchids, hibiscus, amaranths, magnolias, karnikara flowers, aśoka flowers,425 bignonias, kachnar flowers, blue lotuses, medlar flowers,426 sambac jasmine, star jasmine, ironwood flowers, red lotuses, night lotuses, white lotuses, water lilies, precious garlands, precious agarwood, and precious fruit. They were playing hundreds of thousands of different kinds of musical instruments, waving millions of pieces of cloth, crying out, “Ha! Ha! Ha!” and sending down a great rain of flowers. In order to make offerings to the Bhagavān they filled the entire sky without leaving any space [F.34.a] and sent down a great rain of flowers, incense, garlands, perfumes, powders, and jewels.
The Bhagavān entered at midday the great city of Rājagṛha through the hot springs gateway. The nature of this is described in these verses:427
The moment the Bhagavān placed his right foot, adorned by a precious wheel from the accumulation of countless roots of merit, upon the threshold of the gate, this universe of a thousand million worlds shook in six ways. It trembled, trembled strongly, and trembled intensely; it quivered, quivered strongly, and quivered intensely; it shook, shook strongly, and shook intensely; it shuddered, shuddered strongly, and shuddered intensely; it quaked, quaked strongly, and quaked intensely; the east sank and the west rose, the west sank and the east rose, the north sank and the south rose, the south sank and the north rose, the perimeter sank and the center rose, and the center sank and the perimeter rose. A great radiance shone in the world, and countless, numberless other amazing, wonderful, miraculous manifestations appeared.454 [B4]
The nature of this is described in these verses:
Conclusion of the tenth chapter, “The Entry into the City.”
The Indian preceptor Śrīlendrabodhi, and the chief editor Lotsawa Bandé Dharmatāśīla, translated and revised this work. It was later modified and finalized in terms of the new translation.
|BHS||Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit.|
|Chinese||Sixth century Chinese translation by Narendrayaśas (see introduction, i.7).|
|Commentary||Mañjuśrīkīrti (see bibliography).|
|Gilgit||Sixth to seventh century Sanskrit manuscript (see introduction i.9 and bibliography under Dutt).|
|Hodgson||Later Nepalese Sanskrit manuscript (see introduction i.9 and bibliography under Dutt).|
|Matsunami||Matsunami’s Sanskrit edition (see bibliography).|
|Shastri||Later Nepalese Sanskrit manuscript (see introduction i.9 and bibliography under Dutt).|
|Vaidya||Vaidya’s Sanskrit edition (see bibliography).|
Tibetan Editions of the Samādhirājasūtra
chos thams cad kyi rang bzhin mnyam pa nyid rnam spros pa ting nge ’dzin gyi rgyal po’i mdo (Sarvadharmasvabhāvasamatāvipañcitasamādhirājasūtra). Toh 127, Degé Kangyur vol. 55 (mdo sde, da), folios 1.a–175.b.
———. bka’ ’gyur (dpe bsdur ma) [Comparative Edition of the Kangyur], krung go’i bod rig pa zhib ’jug ste gnas kyi bka’ bstan dpe sdur khang (The Tibetan Tripitaka Collation Bureau of the China Tibetology Research Center). 108 volumes. Beijing: krung go’i bod rig pa dpe skrun khang (China Tibetology Publishing House), 2006–2009, vol. 55, pp. 3–411.
———. Lhasa Kangyur (lha sa bka’ ’gyur) vol. 55 (mdo sde, ta), folios 1.b–269.b.
———. Narthang Kangyur (snar thang bka’ ’gyur) vol. 55 (mdo sde, ta), folios 1.b–273.b.
———. Shelkar Drima Kangyur (shel mkhar bris ma bka’ ’gyur) vol. 54 (mdo sde, ja), folios 157.a–436.a.
———. Stok Palace Kangyur (stog pho brang bris ma bka’ ’gyur) vol. 58 (mdo sde, ja), folios 145.a–405.a.
———. Urga Kangyur vol. 55 (mdo sde, da), 1.b–170.a.
Sanskrit Editions of the Samādhirājasūtra
Dutt, Nalinaksha. Gilgit Manuscripts Vol. II, part I. Calcutta: J. C. Sarkhel, 1941. [This Sanskrit edition in three volumes is based on the Gilgit manuscript but also includes and represents the two Nepalese manuscripts of Hodgson and Shastri, see Introduction i.9 and n.4.
———. Gilgit Manuscripts Vol. II, part II. Calcutta: J. C. Sarkhel, 1953.
———. Gilgit Manuscripts Vol. II, part III. Calcutta: J. C. Sarkhel, 1954.
Matsunami, Seiren (ed.). “Bonbun Gattō Zanma kyō.”.in TDKK [Memoirs of Taisho University, Department of Buddhism and Literature] vol. 60 (1975), pp. 188–244.
———. “Bonbun Gattō Zanma kyō.” in TDKK [Memoirs of Taisho University, Department of Buddhism and Literature] vol. 61 (1975), 761–796.
Vaidya, P. L., ed. Samādhirājsūtra. Darbhanga, India: The Mithila Institute of Post-Graduate Studies and Research in Sanskrit Learning, 1961.
Other canonical references
da ltar gyi sangs rgyas mngon sum du bzhugs pa’i ting nge ’dzin gyi mdo (Pratyutpanna-buddha-samukhāsthita-samādhi-sūtra) [The Sūtra, The Samādhi of Being in the Presence of the Buddhas of the Present]. Toh 133, Degé Kangyur vol. 56 (mdo sde, na), folios 1.a–70.b.
dam pa’i chos pad ma dkar po’i mdo (Saddharmapuṇḍarīka-sūtra) [The Sūtra of the White Lotus of the Good Dharma]. Toh 113, Degé Kangyur vol. 67 (mdo sde, ja), folios 1.a–180.b. English translation in Roberts 2018.
de bzhin gshegs pa’i ye shes kyi phyag rgya’i ting nge ’dzin gyi mdo (Tathāgata-jñāna-mudrā-samādhi-sūtra) [The Sūtra of the Samādhi of the Seal of the Wisdom of the Tathāgatas]. Toh 131, Degé Kangyur vol. 55 (mdo sde, da), folios 230.b–253.b. English translation in Dharmachakra Translation Committee 2020b.
dge ba’i rtsa ba yongs su ’dzin pa’i mdo (Kuśala-mūla-saparigraha-sūtra) [The Sūtra of Possessing the Roots of Goodness]. Toh 101, Degé Kangyur vol. 48 (mdo sde, nga), folios 1.a–227.b. English translation in Dharmachakra Translation Committee 2020c.
de bzhin gshegs pa thams cad kyi sku gsung thugs kyi gsang chen gsang ba ’dus pa zhe bya ba brtag pa’i rgyal po chen po (Sarva-tathāgata-kāyavākcitta-rahasyo guhyasamāja-nāma-mahā-kalparāja) [The Great King Entitled the Union of the Great Secrets: the Secret of the Body, Speech, and Mind of all the Tathāgatas]. Also known as the Tathāgataguhyaka Sūtra [The Sūtra of the Secret of the Tathāgatas] and the Guhysamaja-tantra. Toh 442, Degé Kangyur vol. 81 (rgyud, ca), folios 90.a–157.b.
gser ’od dam pa mdo sde’i dbang po’i rgyal po’i mdo (Suvarṇa-prabhāsottama-sūtrendrarāja-sūtra) [The Sūtra of the King Who Is the Lord of Sūtras: The Supreme Golden Light]. Toh 556, Degé Kangyur vol. 89 (rgyud, pa), folios 151.b–273.a.
lang kar gshegs pa’i mdo (Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra) [Entry into Laṅka Sūtra]. Toh 107, Degé Kangyur vol. 49 (mdo sde, ca), folios 56.a–191.b.
sangs rgyas rjes su dran pa (Buddhānusmṛti) [Being Mindful of the Buddha]. Toh 279, Degé Kangyur vol. 68 (mdo sde, ya), folios 55.a-55.b.
rab tu zhi ba rnam par nges pa’i cho ’phrul gyi ting nge ’dzin gyi mdo (Praśanta-viniścaya-prāthihārya-samādhi-sūtra) [The Sūtra of the Absorption of the Miraculous Ascertainment of Peace]. Toh 129, Degé Kangyur vol. 55 (mdo sde, da), folios 174.b–210.b. English translation in Dharmachakra Translation Committee 2020.
rgya cher rol pa’i mdo (Lalitavistara-sūtra) [The Play in Full]. Toh 95, Degé Kangyur vol. 46 (mdo sde, kha), folios 1.b–216.b. English translation in Dharmachakra Translation Committee 2013.
sa bcu pa’i mdo (Daśabhūmika-sūtra) [The Sūtra of the Ten Bhūmis]. Chapter 31 of the Avataṃsaka, Toh 44. Degé Kangyur vol. 36 (phal chen, kha), folios 166.a–283.a. English translation in Roberts 2021b.
sdong po bkod pa (Gaṇḍavyūha) [The Stem Array]. Chapter 45 of the Avataṃsaka, Toh 44-45. Degé Kangyur vols. 37 and 38 (phal chen, ga-a), folios ga 274.b–363.a. English Translation in Roberts 2021a.
shes rab pha rol tu phyin pa brgyad stong pa (Aṣṭa-sāhasrikā-prajñāpāramitā-sūtra) [The Perfection of Wisdom in Eight Thousand Lines]. Toh 12, Degé Kangyur vol. 33 (brgyad stong pa, ka), folios 1.b–286.a.
’od dpag med kyi bkod pa’i mdo (Amitābhavyūhasūtra) [The Array of Amitābha]. Also known as The Longer Sukhāvatīsūtra. Toh 49, Degé Kangyur vol. 39 (dkon brtsegs, ka), folios 237.b-270.a.
’od zer kun du bkye pa’i bstan pa’i mdo (Raśmisamantamuktanirdeśasūtra) [The Teaching on the Effulgence of Light]. Toh 55, Degé Kangur vol. 40 (dkon brtsegs, kha), folios 195.a–255.b.
tshong dpon bzang skyong gyis zhus pa’i mdo (Bhadrapāla-śreṣṭhi-paripṛccha-sūtra) [The Sūtra of the Questions of Bhadrapāla the Merchant]. Toh 83, Degé Kangyur vol. 44 (dkon brtsegs, cha), folios 71.a–94.b.
yang dag par spyod pa’i tshul nam mkha’i mdog gis ’dul ba’i bzod pa’i mdo (Saṃyagacārya-vṛtta-gagana-varṇa-vinaya-kṣānti-sūtra) [The Sūtra on Patience with the Discipline Through Practicing in a Way that is Like The Colour of the Sky]. Toh 263, Degé Kangyur vol. 67 (mdo sde ’a), folios 90.a–209.b.
Candrakīrti. dbu ma la ’jug pa (Madhyamakāvatāra) [Entering the Middle Way]. Toh 3861, Degé Tengyur vol. 102 (dbu ma ’a), folios 201.b–219.a.
———. dbu ma rtsa ba’i ’grel pa tshig gsal ba (Mūlamadhyamakavṛttiprasannapadā) [Clear Words: A Commentary on the Root Middle Way]. Toh 3860, Degé Tengyur vol. 102 (dbu ma, ’a), folios 1.a–200.a.
Dārika. ’khor lo sdom pa’i dkyil ’khor gyi cho ga de kho na nyid la ’jug pa (Cakrasaṁvaramaṇḍalavidhitattvāvatāra) [Entering the Truth: A Maṇḍala Rite of Cakrasamvara]. Toh 1430, Degé Tengyur vol. 20 (rgyud ’grel, wa), folios 203.b–219.b.
Kamalaśīla. sgom pa’i rim pa (Bhāvanākrama) [Stages of Meditation]. Toh 3915, 3916, and 3917, Degé Tengyur vol. 110 (dbu ma, ki), folios 22.a–41.b, 41.a–55.b, and 55.b–68.b.
Mañjuśrīkīrti. ’phags pa chos thams cad kyi rang bzhin mnyam pa nyid rnam spros pa ting nge ’dzin gyi rgyal po zhes bya ba theg pa chen po’i mdo’i ’grel pa grags pa’i phreng ba zhes bya ba (Ārya-sarva-dharma-svabhāva-samatā-vipañcita-samādhi-rāja-nāma-mahāyāna-sūtra-ṭika-kīrti-mālā-nāma) [The Garland of Fame: A Commentary on The Mahāyāna Sūtra Entitled The King of Samādhis: The Revealed Equality of the Nature of All Phenomena]. Toh 4010, Degé Tengyur vol. 117 (mdo ’grel, nyi), folios 1.b–163.b.
———. Idem, in bstan ’gyur (dpe bsdur ma) [Comparative Edition of the Tengyur], krung go’i bod rig pa zhib ’jug ste gnas kyi bka’ bstan dpe sdur khang (The Tibetan Tripitaka Collation Bureau of the China Tibetology Research Center). 120 volumes. Beijing: krung go’i bod rig pa dpe skrun khang (China Tibetology Publishing House), 1994–2008, vol. 117 (mdo ’grel, nyi), 752–1181.
Prajñākaramati. byang chub kyi spyod pa la ’jug pa’i dka’ ’grel (Bodhisattvacaryāvatārapañjikā) [Commentary on Difficult Points in Entering the Conduct of the Bodhisattvas]. Toh 3872, Degé Tengyur vol. 105 (dbu ma, la), folios 41.b–288.a.
Śāntideva. byang chub sems dpa’i spyod pa la ’jug pa (Bodhisattvacaryāvatāra) [Entering the Conduct of the Bodhisattvas]. Toh 3871, Degé Tengyur vol. 105 (dbu ma, la), folios 1.a–40.a.
———. bslab pa kun las btus pa (Śikṣasamuccaya) [Compendium of Training]. Toh 3939, Degé Tengyur vol. 111 (dbu ma, khi), folios 3.a–194.b.
Non-Canonical Tibetan Sources
Gampopa (sgam po pa bsod nams rin chen). dam chos yid bzhin nor bu thar pa rin po che’i rgyan. Kathmandu: Gam-po-pa Library, 2003.
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