The King of Samādhis Sūtra
Degé Kangyur, vol. 55 (mdo sde, da), folios 1.b–170.b
Translated by Peter Alan Roberts
under the patronage and supervision of 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha
First published 2018
Current version v 1.45.25 (2022)
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This sūtra, much quoted in later Buddhist writings for its profound statements especially on the nature of emptiness, relates a long teaching given by the Buddha mainly in response to questions put by a young layman, Candraprabha. The samādhi that is the subject of the sūtra, in spite of its name, primarily consists of various aspects of conduct, motivation, and the understanding of emptiness; it is also a way of referring to the sūtra itself. The teaching given in the sūtra is the instruction to be dedicated to the possession and promulgation of the samādhi, and to the necessary conduct of a bodhisattva, which is exemplified by a number of accounts from the Buddha’s previous lives. Most of the teaching takes place on Vulture Peak Mountain, with an interlude recounting the Buddha’s invitation and visit to Candraprabha’s home in Rājagṛha, where he continues to teach Candraprabha before returning to Vulture Peak Mountain. In one subsequent chapter the Buddha responds to a request by Ānanda, and the text concludes with a commitment by Ānanda to maintain this teaching in the future.
Translated from the Tibetan, with reference to Sanskrit editions, by Peter Alan Roberts. The Chinese consultant was Ling-Lung Chen. Edited by Emily Bower and Ben Gleason.
This translation has been completed under the patronage and supervision of 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha.
The generous donation of an anonymous donor, which helped make the work on this translation possible, is most gratefully acknowledged.
I pay homage to all the buddhas and bodhisattvas.8
Thus have I heard at one time: The Bhagavān was residing at Vulture Peak Mountain in Rājagṛha together with a great bhikṣu saṅgha of a full hundred thousand bhikṣus, and together with eighty quintillion9 bodhisattvas,10 all of whom had one rebirth remaining, were renowned for their higher cognitions,11 and had gathered there from the worlds in the ten directions; they had complete mastery12 of the dhāraṇīs13 and sūtras; they satisfied all beings with the gift of the Dharma; they were skilled in speaking of the wisdom of the higher cognitions; they had attained the highest perfection of all the highest perfections; [F.2.a] they were skilled in the knowledge of remaining in all bodhisattva samādhis and samāpattis; they had been praised, extolled, and lauded by all the buddhas;14 they were skilled in miraculously going to all buddha realms; they were skilled in the knowledge of terrifying all māras;15 they were skilled in the correct knowledge of the nature of all phenomena; they were skilled in the knowledge of the higher and lower capabilities of all beings; they were skilled in the knowledge of accomplishing the activity of offering to all the buddhas; they were unstained by any of the worldly concerns; they had perfectly adorned bodies, speech, and minds;16 they wore the armor of great love and great compassion; they had great undiminishing diligence throughout countless eons; they roared the great lion’s roar; they could not be defeated by any opponent;17 they were sealed with nonregression; and they had received the consecration of the Dharma from all buddhas.18 They were the bodhisattva mahāsattvas Meru, Sumeru, Mahāmeru,19 Meruśikharadhara,20 Merupradīparāja, Merukūṭa, Merudhvaja, Merurāja,21 Meruśikharasaṁghaṭṭanarāja,22 Merusvara, Megharāja, Dundubhisvara, Ratnapāṇi,23 Ratnākara, Ratnaketu, Ratnaśikhara, Ratnasaṁbhava, Ratnaprabhāsa, Ratnayaṣṭi, Ratnamudrāhasta, Ratnavyūha, Ratnajāli, Ratnaprabha, Ratnadvīpa, [F.2.b] Ratiṁkara, Dharmavyūha, Vyūharāja, Lakṣaṇasamalaṁkṛta, Svaravyūha, Svaraviśuddhiprabha, Ratnakūṭa, Ratnacūḍa,24 Daśaśataraśmihutārci,25 Jyotirasa, Candrabhānu, Sahacittotpādadharmacakrapravartin, and Śubhakanakaviśuddhiprabha, the bodhisatta mahāsattva Satatamabhayaṁdad,26 and all the bodhisattva mahāsattvas of the Good Eon, such as the bodhisattva mahāsattva Ajita,27 and the sixty with incomparable minds,28 such as Mañjuśrī, and the sixteen good beings,29 such as Bhadrapāla,30 and the Four Mahārājas and the other Cāturmahārājakāyika devas, and so on31 up until Brahmā and the other Brahmakāyika devas. In addition there were also devas, nāgas, yakṣas, gandharvas, asuras, garuḍas, kinnaras, mahoragas, humans, and nonhumans, who were all illustrious32 and renowned as being very powerful.33
They honored him,34 worshiped him,35 revered him,36 made offerings to him,37 praised him,38 and venerated him.39 The fourfold assembly and the worlds40 of devas also paid homage to him,41 made offerings to him, honored him, worshiped him, revered him, praised him, and venerated him.
Then the Bhagavān, encircled and esteemed by that assembly of many hundred thousands, taught the Dharma. He taught perfectly the spiritual conduct that is good in the beginning, good in the middle, and good in the end, that has a good meaning, that has good words, and is unalloyed, complete, pure, and wholesome.
At that time, within that gathered assembly there was a youth42 named Candraprabha, who had honored the jinas in the past, had planted roots of merit, could remember his previous lives, had the confidence of speech, had correctly followed the Mahāyāna, and who was dedicated to great compassion.
The youth Candraprabha rose from his seat, removed his robe from one shoulder, [F.3.a] and, kneeling on his right knee, with palms placed together bowed toward the Bhagavān and made this request: “If the Bhagavān will give me an opportunity to seek answers to them, I have a few questions for the Bhagavān, the tathāgata, the arhat, the perfectly enlightened Buddha.”
The Bhagavān addressed the youth Candraprabha, saying, “Young man, ask whatever question you wish of the Tathāgata, the arhat, the perfectly enlightened Buddha, and I shall gratify you with answers to each and every question you have asked.
“Young man, I am omniscient.43 I am all-seeing. I have attained preeminence because of my strengths and fearlessness concerning all Dharmas. I possess the unobscured wisdom of liberation.
“Young man, there is nothing in the endless, infinite worlds44 that the Tathāgata does not know, has not seen, has not heard, has not understood, has not directly perceived, and about which he has not become completely enlightened.
“Young man, may you always have the opportunity to ask questions of the Tathāgata, and I will gratify you with answers for each of the questions you ask.”
The Bhagavān having given him this opportunity, the young man Candraprabha45 recited these verses to the Bhagavān:
The Bhagavān said to the youth Candraprabha, “Young man, bodhisattva mahāsattvas will attain all those qualities and quickly attain the highest, complete enlightenment of perfect buddhahood if they have one quality.53 What is that one quality? Young man, it is the bodhisattva mahāsattvas’ evenness of mind toward all beings. They wish to benefit them, have no anger, and have no partiality. Young man, if bodhisattva mahāsattvas have that one quality [F.4.a] they will attain all those qualities and quickly attain the highest, complete enlightenment of perfect buddhahood.”
The Bhagavān then recited these verses to the youth Candraprabha:
“Young man, in that way the bodhisattva mahāsattva who has evenness of mind toward all beings, wishes to benefit them, and has no anger or partiality will attain the samādhi known as the revealed equality of the nature of all phenomena.
“Young man, what is the samādhi called the revealed equality of the nature of all phenomena?
“It is restraint of the body.56 It is restraint of the speech. It is restraint of the mind. It is purity of action. It is the transcendence of the mind’s perceptions.57 It is knowledge of the skandhas. It is the equality of the dhātus. It is the elimination of the āyatanas.
“It is the renunciation of craving. It is having the direct perception of birthlessness. It is engagement in activity.58 It is the illumination of causes.59 It is the non-dissipation of the results of karma. It is insight into phenomena. It is the meditation of the path. It is meeting the tathāgatas.
“It is sharp wisdom. It is penetrating into beings.60 It is knowledge of phenomena.61 [F.4.b] It is the knowledge of engaging in discernment. It is the knowledge of the different kinds of letters and words. It is the transcendence of matter. It is the understanding of sounds. It is the attainment of joy. It is experiencing the joy of the Dharma. It is sincerity.62 It is tolerance.63 It is to be without deception.64
“It is to be without frowns. It is to be pleasant.65 It is to have correct conduct.66 It is to be friendly.67 It is to be gentle.68 It is having a smiling face.69 It is being courteous.70 It is to be welcoming.71
“It is to be without laziness.72 It is having veneration73 for the guru.74 It is respect75 for the guru. It is being content with occurrences. It is never being satisfied with the good actions one has done. It is having a pure livelihood. It is not forsaking the solitary life.
“It is the knowledge of successive levels. It is always maintaining mindfulness. It is being wise concerning the skandhas. It is being wise concerning the dhātus. It is being wise concerning the āyatanas. It is making one’s higher cognitions manifest to others.
“It is the elimination of kleśas. It is ceasing engagement with propensities.76 It is having specific attainments.77 It is the natural result of meditation.78
“It is skillfulness in eliminating transgressions.79 It is the prevention of the arising of bad actions. It is the elimination of attachment.80
“It is transcending the existences. It is the memory of previous rebirths. It is being free from doubt concerning the ripening of karma.
“It is the contemplation of phenomena. It is seeking to hear the Dharma. It is having sharp knowledge. It is craving for wisdom. It is the realization of wisdom.
“It is the level of a noble being.81 It is having a mind like a mountain. It is being unshakable. It is being immovable. It is the knowledge of the nature of the level of irreversibility.
“It is having the natural result of good qualities.82 It is the abhorrence of bad qualities. It is being free of behavior caused by the kleśas. It is never abandoning the training.
“It is being established in samādhi. It is the knowledge of the thoughts of beings. It is the knowledge of the various rebirths of beings. It is knowledge of the infinite.83 It is the knowledge of the intended meaning of words.84
“It is the rejection of living in a home. It is finding no joy in the three realms. It is having a motivation that is not discouraged. It is having no attachment to phenomena.
“It is having possession of the sacred Dharma. It is protecting the Dharma. It is conviction in the ripening of karma. It is skill in the vinaya. [F.5.a]
“It is the pacification of disputes. It is the absence of discord and the absence of quarrels. It is having reached the level of patience. It is maintaining patience.
“It is the equality of the different kinds of beings.85 It is skill in examining phenomena.86 It is skill in gaining certainty concerning phenomena.
“It is the knowledge of distinguishing between the words for phenomena.87 It is skill in the presentation of the words for phenomena. It is the knowledge of the skill of presenting the distinction between words that have meaning and those that do not have meaning.88
“It is knowledge of the past. It is knowledge of the future. It is knowledge of the present.89 It is the knowledge of the equality of the three times. It is the knowledge of the purity of the three aspects of actions.
“It is the knowledge of the body’s condition. It is the knowledge of the mind’s condition. It is guarding conduct. It is having unshakable90 conduct. It is uncontrived conduct.91 It is engaging in conduct that is attractive.92
“It is the knowledge of skill in what is beneficial and what is not beneficial.93 It is rational speech.94 It is knowledge of the world.
“It is unrestrained generosity. It is being openhanded.95 It is having a nongrasping mind.
“It is having a sense of modesty and self-respect. It is an abhorrence of negative aspirations. It is not forsaking the qualities of purification. It is maintaining correct conduct. It is joyful conduct.
“It is standing up to welcome gurus and presenting them with a seat. It is the elimination of pride. It is controlling the mind. It is the knowledge of generating enthusiasm.
“It is the knowledge of discernment. It is the realization of wisdom. It is being without ignorance. It is knowledge of the processes of the mind. It is the knowledge that realizes the nature of the mind.96
“It is the knowledge of accomplishment and definite accomplishment.97 It is the knowledge of all language. It is the knowledge of presenting definitions.98 It is the knowledge of attaining certainty in meaning.
“It is abandoning that which is harmful. It is attending upon excellent beings.99 It is being together with excellent beings. It is avoiding bad beings.
“It is the utilization102 of the higher cognitions. It is the knowledge that comprehends the nature of assigned names and designations. It is overcoming designations. It is disillusionment with saṃsāra.103
“It is the absence of yearning for respect.104 It is indifference to lack of respect.105 It is not being motivated by material gain. It is not being disheartened when there is no gain. It is the absence of interest in honor. It is the absence of anger at dishonor. [F.5.b] It is the absence of attachment to praise. It is the absence of displeasure in response to criticism. It is the absence of attachment to happiness. It is the absence of aversion to suffering. It is not being acquisitive of composite things. It is having no attachment to renown. It is accepting the lack of renown.106
“It is not associating with householders and mendicants.107 It is avoiding that which is outside the scope of correct conduct. It is acting within the scope of correct conduct. It is a perfection of correct conduct. It is rejecting incorrect conduct.108 It is not dishonoring your family.109
“It is preserving the teaching. It is speaking little. It is speaking softly.110 It is speaking slowly.111 It is skillfulness in answers. It is defeating opposition. It is arriving at the right time. It is not relying on ordinary people.
“It is not having contempt for those in suffering. It is giving them charity. It is not rebuking112 the poor. It is having compassion for those with wrong conduct. It is having that which will bring benefit to others.113 It is having a compassionate mind. It is benefiting others through the Dharma. It is giving away material things. It is the absence of hoarding.
“It is praising correct conduct. It is condemning incorrect conduct. It is unwaveringly114 attending upon those who have correct conduct. It is giving up all possessions. It is welcoming others115 with a higher motivation. It is doing exactly what one has said one will do. It is perpetual application. It is experiencing joy through veneration.
“It is the knowledge of using examples. It is being skilled in terms of past lifetimes. It is putting roots of merit first. It is skill in methods.
“It is the negation of attributes. It is rejecting identification. It is knowledge of the characteristics of things.116
“It is the accomplishment of the sūtras. It is skill in the vinaya.117 It is certainty in the truth. It is the direct experience of liberation. It is the single teaching. It is not abandoning correct knowing and seeing.118 It is speech free of doubt.119
“It is remaining in emptiness.120 It is remaining in the absence of attributes.121 It is understanding122 the nature of the absence of aspiration.123 It is the attainment of fearlessness.
“It is illumination by wisdom.124 It is excellent125 correct conduct. It is entering into samāpatti. It is the attainment of wisdom.126
“It is delighting in solitude. It is knowledge of oneself.127 [F.6.a] It is contentment with having no high reputation.128
“It is the absence of pollution in the mind. It is rejecting incorrect views.129 It is the attainment of mental retention.
“It is the entrance into knowledge.130 It is the knowledge of the basis, the ground, the foundation, and the practice.131
It is the cause,132 the method,133 the way,134 the creation,135 the doorway,136 the path,137 the practice,138 the guidance,139 the explication,140 and the conduct of the instruction.141
“It is appropriate patience.142 It is the level of patience.143 It is being free of impatience.144 It is the level of knowledge. It is the elimination of ignorance. It is being established in knowledge.
“It is the level of spiritual practice.145 It is the scope of practice of the bodhisattvas.
“It is attending upon wise beings. It is rejecting those who are not wise beings. It is the knowledge that analyzes and realizes the nature of all phenomena.146
“It is the level of buddhahood taught by the tathāgatas.147 The wise rejoice in it. The foolish reject it. It is difficult for the śrāvakas to know. The pratyekabuddhas do not know it. It is not the level of the tīrthikas. The bodhisattvas possess it. It is realized by those who have the ten strengths. The devas make offerings to it. Brahmā praises148 it. The Śakras149 value it above all else.150 The nāgas pay homage to it. The yakṣas rejoice in it. The kinnaras praise it in song. The mahoragas laud it. The bodhisattvas meditate on it. The wise comprehend it.
“It is the highest wealth. It is immaterial generosity. It is a medicine for the sick. It is a treasure of wisdom. It is unceasing eloquence.
“It is the way of the sūtras.151 It is the domain152 of heroes.153 It is the comprehension of the entire three realms. It is a raft154 for crossing to the other shore. It is like a boat for those in the middle of a river.
“It is fame for those who wish for renown. The buddhas praise it. [F.6.b] The tathāgatas laud it. Those who have the ten strengths praise it.
“It is the quality of the bodhisattvas. It is the equanimity of those with compassion. It is the love that brings anger155 to an end.
“It is the delight of those with peaceful minds.156 It provides relief for those who follow the Mahāyāna.
“It is the diligent practice of those with a lion’s roar. It is the path of the wisdom of the buddhas.157
“It is the seal upon all phenomena. It is the accomplishment of omniscient wisdom.158
“It is the pleasure grove of bodhisattvas. It is that which terrifies the māras.
“It is the knowledge of those who have reached happiness. It is the benefit of those who accomplish benefit.
“It is the refuge for those among enemies. It is the subjugation of adversaries by those who have the Dharma.
“It is the expression of truth for those who have fearlessness. It is the correct search for the strengths. It is the omen for the eighteen unique qualities of a buddha. It is the adornment of the Dharma body.159 It is the natural result of bodhisattva conduct.160 It is the adornment of the bodhisattvas.161 It is the delight of those who desire liberation. It is the joy of the eldest sons.162
“It is the completion of buddha wisdom. It is not the level of śrāvakas or pratyekabuddhas.
“It is the purity of the mind. It is the purity of the body. It is the completion of the doorways to liberation.
“It is the wisdom of buddhahood’s freedom from the kleśas.163 It is the nonarising of desire.164 It is devoid of anger.
“It is not the level of ignorance. It is the arising of wisdom. It is the birth of knowledge. It is the elimination of ignorance.
“It is the contentment of those dedicated to liberation. It is the satisfaction of those dedicated to samādhi. It is eyes for those who wish for the view. It is higher knowledge for those who wish to perform miracles. It is miraculous power for those who wish for accomplishment. It is retentive memory for those dedicated to listening to the Dharma.165
“It is unceasing mindfulness. It is the blessing of the buddhas. [F.7.a] It is the skillful method of the guides.
“It is subtle and difficult to know for those without dedication.166 Those who are not liberated cannot know it.167 It is beyond words and difficult to know through speech.
“It is known by wise beings. It is the knowledge of gentle beings.168 Those with few desires realize it. Those who have unceasing diligence possess it. Those who are mindful maintain it.
“It is the cessation of suffering. It is the birthlessness of all phenomena. It is the single teaching on all existing beings and lifetimes.
“Young man, this is the samādhi called the revealed equality of the nature of all phenomena.”
When the Bhagavān gave this teaching of the samādhi, the revealed equality of the nature of all phenomena, in the past, eighty times a hundred thousand million169 devas and humans, who had previously generated the necessary karma, attained the patience of the birthlessness of phenomena, ninety-six times a hundred thousand million attained the corresponding patience, ninety-three times a hundred thousand million obtained the transmission of the teaching of that patience, and the entirety of the hundred thousand170 bhikṣus attained liberation of mind through the defilements not arising. Sixty times a hundred thousand devas and human beings became free of desire, without stains, and gained the pure Dharma sight of the Dharmas. Eighty thousand bhikṣuṇīs171 attained liberation of mind through the nonarising of defilements. Five hundred upāsakas attained the result of nonreturners. Six thousand upāsikās attained the result of once-returners. This universe of a thousand million worlds shook in six ways: it trembled, it trembled strongly, and it trembled intensely; it quivered, it quivered strongly, and it quivered intensely; it shook, it shook strongly, and it shook intensely; it shuddered, it shuddered strongly, and it shuddered intensely; it quaked, it quaked strongly, and it quaked intensely. The east sank and the west rose, [F.7.b] the west sank and the east rose, the north sank and the south rose, the south sank and the north rose, the perimeter sank and the center rose, and the center sank and the perimeter rose. An immeasurable radiance shone in the universe so that whatever darkness there was between the worlds was illuminated by it. The beings who were born there could see each other and they cried, “Ah! Other beings have been born here too!” This occurred even as far down as the great Avīci hell.
Conclusion of the first chapter: “The Introduction.”
The Indian preceptor Śrīlendrabodhi, and the chief editor Lotsawa Bandé Dharmatāśīla, translated and revised this work. It was later modified and finalized in terms of the new translation.
|BHS||Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit.|
|Chinese||Sixth century Chinese translation by Narendrayaśas (see introduction, i.7).|
|Commentary||Mañjuśrīkīrti (see bibliography).|
|Gilgit||Sixth to seventh century Sanskrit manuscript (see introduction i.9 and bibliography under Dutt).|
|Hodgson||Later Nepalese Sanskrit manuscript (see introduction i.9 and bibliography under Dutt).|
|Matsunami||Matsunami’s Sanskrit edition (see bibliography).|
|Shastri||Later Nepalese Sanskrit manuscript (see introduction i.9 and bibliography under Dutt).|
|Vaidya||Vaidya’s Sanskrit edition (see bibliography).|
Tibetan Editions of the Samādhirājasūtra
chos thams cad kyi rang bzhin mnyam pa nyid rnam spros pa ting nge ’dzin gyi rgyal po’i mdo (Sarvadharmasvabhāvasamatāvipañcitasamādhirājasūtra). Toh 127, Degé Kangyur vol. 55 (mdo sde, da), folios 1.a–175.b.
———. bka’ ’gyur (dpe bsdur ma) [Comparative Edition of the Kangyur], krung go’i bod rig pa zhib ’jug ste gnas kyi bka’ bstan dpe sdur khang (The Tibetan Tripitaka Collation Bureau of the China Tibetology Research Center). 108 volumes. Beijing: krung go’i bod rig pa dpe skrun khang (China Tibetology Publishing House), 2006–2009, vol. 55, pp. 3–411.
———. Lhasa Kangyur (lha sa bka’ ’gyur) vol. 55 (mdo sde, ta), folios 1.b–269.b.
———. Narthang Kangyur (snar thang bka’ ’gyur) vol. 55 (mdo sde, ta), folios 1.b–273.b.
———. Shelkar Drima Kangyur (shel mkhar bris ma bka’ ’gyur) vol. 54 (mdo sde, ja), folios 157.a–436.a.
———. Stok Palace Kangyur (stog pho brang bris ma bka’ ’gyur) vol. 58 (mdo sde, ja), folios 145.a–405.a.
———. Urga Kangyur vol. 55 (mdo sde, da), 1.b–170.a.
Sanskrit Editions of the Samādhirājasūtra
Dutt, Nalinaksha. Gilgit Manuscripts Vol. II, part I. Calcutta: J. C. Sarkhel, 1941. [This Sanskrit edition in three volumes is based on the Gilgit manuscript but also includes and represents the two Nepalese manuscripts of Hodgson and Shastri, see Introduction i.9 and n.4.
———. Gilgit Manuscripts Vol. II, part II. Calcutta: J. C. Sarkhel, 1953.
———. Gilgit Manuscripts Vol. II, part III. Calcutta: J. C. Sarkhel, 1954.
Matsunami, Seiren (ed.). “Bonbun Gattō Zanma kyō.”.in TDKK [Memoirs of Taisho University, Department of Buddhism and Literature] vol. 60 (1975), pp. 188–244.
———. “Bonbun Gattō Zanma kyō.” in TDKK [Memoirs of Taisho University, Department of Buddhism and Literature] vol. 61 (1975), 761–796.
Vaidya, P. L., ed. Samādhirājsūtra. Darbhanga, India: The Mithila Institute of Post-Graduate Studies and Research in Sanskrit Learning, 1961.
Other canonical references
da ltar gyi sangs rgyas mngon sum du bzhugs pa’i ting nge ’dzin gyi mdo (Pratyutpanna-buddha-samukhāsthita-samādhi-sūtra) [The Sūtra, The Samādhi of Being in the Presence of the Buddhas of the Present]. Toh 133, Degé Kangyur vol. 56 (mdo sde, na), folios 1.a–70.b.
dam pa’i chos pad ma dkar po’i mdo (Saddharmapuṇḍarīka-sūtra) [The Sūtra of the White Lotus of the Good Dharma]. Toh 113, Degé Kangyur vol. 67 (mdo sde, ja), folios 1.a–180.b. English translation in Roberts 2018.
de bzhin gshegs pa’i ye shes kyi phyag rgya’i ting nge ’dzin gyi mdo (Tathāgata-jñāna-mudrā-samādhi-sūtra) [The Sūtra of the Samādhi of the Seal of the Wisdom of the Tathāgatas]. Toh 131, Degé Kangyur vol. 55 (mdo sde, da), folios 230.b–253.b. English translation in Dharmachakra Translation Committee 2020b.
dge ba’i rtsa ba yongs su ’dzin pa’i mdo (Kuśala-mūla-saparigraha-sūtra) [The Sūtra of Possessing the Roots of Goodness]. Toh 101, Degé Kangyur vol. 48 (mdo sde, nga), folios 1.a–227.b. English translation in Dharmachakra Translation Committee 2020c.
de bzhin gshegs pa thams cad kyi sku gsung thugs kyi gsang chen gsang ba ’dus pa zhe bya ba brtag pa’i rgyal po chen po (Sarva-tathāgata-kāyavākcitta-rahasyo guhyasamāja-nāma-mahā-kalparāja) [The Great King Entitled the Union of the Great Secrets: the Secret of the Body, Speech, and Mind of all the Tathāgatas]. Also known as the Tathāgataguhyaka Sūtra [The Sūtra of the Secret of the Tathāgatas] and the Guhysamaja-tantra. Toh 442, Degé Kangyur vol. 81 (rgyud, ca), folios 90.a–157.b.
gser ’od dam pa mdo sde’i dbang po’i rgyal po’i mdo (Suvarṇa-prabhāsottama-sūtrendrarāja-sūtra) [The Sūtra of the King Who Is the Lord of Sūtras: The Supreme Golden Light]. Toh 556, Degé Kangyur vol. 89 (rgyud, pa), folios 151.b–273.a.
lang kar gshegs pa’i mdo (Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra) [Entry into Laṅka Sūtra]. Toh 107, Degé Kangyur vol. 49 (mdo sde, ca), folios 56.a–191.b.
sangs rgyas rjes su dran pa (Buddhānusmṛti) [Being Mindful of the Buddha]. Toh 279, Degé Kangyur vol. 68 (mdo sde, ya), folios 55.a-55.b.
rab tu zhi ba rnam par nges pa’i cho ’phrul gyi ting nge ’dzin gyi mdo (Praśanta-viniścaya-prāthihārya-samādhi-sūtra) [The Sūtra of the Absorption of the Miraculous Ascertainment of Peace]. Toh 129, Degé Kangyur vol. 55 (mdo sde, da), folios 174.b–210.b. English translation in Dharmachakra Translation Committee 2020.
rgya cher rol pa’i mdo (Lalitavistara-sūtra) [The Play in Full]. Toh 95, Degé Kangyur vol. 46 (mdo sde, kha), folios 1.b–216.b. English translation in Dharmachakra Translation Committee 2013.
sa bcu pa’i mdo (Daśabhūmika-sūtra) [The Sūtra of the Ten Bhūmis]. Chapter 31 of the Avataṃsaka, Toh 44. Degé Kangyur vol. 36 (phal chen, kha), folios 166.a–283.a. English translation in Roberts 2021b.
sdong po bkod pa (Gaṇḍavyūha) [The Stem Array]. Chapter 45 of the Avataṃsaka, Toh 44-45. Degé Kangyur vols. 37 and 38 (phal chen, ga-a), folios ga 274.b–363.a. English Translation in Roberts 2021a.
shes rab pha rol tu phyin pa brgyad stong pa (Aṣṭa-sāhasrikā-prajñāpāramitā-sūtra) [The Perfection of Wisdom in Eight Thousand Lines]. Toh 12, Degé Kangyur vol. 33 (brgyad stong pa, ka), folios 1.b–286.a.
’od dpag med kyi bkod pa’i mdo (Amitābhavyūhasūtra) [The Array of Amitābha]. Also known as The Longer Sukhāvatīsūtra. Toh 49, Degé Kangyur vol. 39 (dkon brtsegs, ka), folios 237.b-270.a.
’od zer kun du bkye pa’i bstan pa’i mdo (Raśmisamantamuktanirdeśasūtra) [The Teaching on the Effulgence of Light]. Toh 55, Degé Kangur vol. 40 (dkon brtsegs, kha), folios 195.a–255.b.
tshong dpon bzang skyong gyis zhus pa’i mdo (Bhadrapāla-śreṣṭhi-paripṛccha-sūtra) [The Sūtra of the Questions of Bhadrapāla the Merchant]. Toh 83, Degé Kangyur vol. 44 (dkon brtsegs, cha), folios 71.a–94.b.
yang dag par spyod pa’i tshul nam mkha’i mdog gis ’dul ba’i bzod pa’i mdo (Saṃyagacārya-vṛtta-gagana-varṇa-vinaya-kṣānti-sūtra) [The Sūtra on Patience with the Discipline Through Practicing in a Way that is Like The Colour of the Sky]. Toh 263, Degé Kangyur vol. 67 (mdo sde ’a), folios 90.a–209.b.
Candrakīrti. dbu ma la ’jug pa (Madhyamakāvatāra) [Entering the Middle Way]. Toh 3861, Degé Tengyur vol. 102 (dbu ma ’a), folios 201.b–219.a.
———. dbu ma rtsa ba’i ’grel pa tshig gsal ba (Mūlamadhyamakavṛttiprasannapadā) [Clear Words: A Commentary on the Root Middle Way]. Toh 3860, Degé Tengyur vol. 102 (dbu ma, ’a), folios 1.a–200.a.
Dārika. ’khor lo sdom pa’i dkyil ’khor gyi cho ga de kho na nyid la ’jug pa (Cakrasaṁvaramaṇḍalavidhitattvāvatāra) [Entering the Truth: A Maṇḍala Rite of Cakrasamvara]. Toh 1430, Degé Tengyur vol. 20 (rgyud ’grel, wa), folios 203.b–219.b.
Kamalaśīla. sgom pa’i rim pa (Bhāvanākrama) [Stages of Meditation]. Toh 3915, 3916, and 3917, Degé Tengyur vol. 110 (dbu ma, ki), folios 22.a–41.b, 41.a–55.b, and 55.b–68.b.
Mañjuśrīkīrti. ’phags pa chos thams cad kyi rang bzhin mnyam pa nyid rnam spros pa ting nge ’dzin gyi rgyal po zhes bya ba theg pa chen po’i mdo’i ’grel pa grags pa’i phreng ba zhes bya ba (Ārya-sarva-dharma-svabhāva-samatā-vipañcita-samādhi-rāja-nāma-mahāyāna-sūtra-ṭika-kīrti-mālā-nāma) [The Garland of Fame: A Commentary on The Mahāyāna Sūtra Entitled The King of Samādhis: The Revealed Equality of the Nature of All Phenomena]. Toh 4010, Degé Tengyur vol. 117 (mdo ’grel, nyi), folios 1.b–163.b.
———. Idem, in bstan ’gyur (dpe bsdur ma) [Comparative Edition of the Tengyur], krung go’i bod rig pa zhib ’jug ste gnas kyi bka’ bstan dpe sdur khang (The Tibetan Tripitaka Collation Bureau of the China Tibetology Research Center). 120 volumes. Beijing: krung go’i bod rig pa dpe skrun khang (China Tibetology Publishing House), 1994–2008, vol. 117 (mdo ’grel, nyi), 752–1181.
Prajñākaramati. byang chub kyi spyod pa la ’jug pa’i dka’ ’grel (Bodhisattvacaryāvatārapañjikā) [Commentary on Difficult Points in Entering the Conduct of the Bodhisattvas]. Toh 3872, Degé Tengyur vol. 105 (dbu ma, la), folios 41.b–288.a.
Śāntideva. byang chub sems dpa’i spyod pa la ’jug pa (Bodhisattvacaryāvatāra) [Entering the Conduct of the Bodhisattvas]. Toh 3871, Degé Tengyur vol. 105 (dbu ma, la), folios 1.a–40.a.
———. bslab pa kun las btus pa (Śikṣasamuccaya) [Compendium of Training]. Toh 3939, Degé Tengyur vol. 111 (dbu ma, khi), folios 3.a–194.b.
Non-Canonical Tibetan Sources
Gampopa (sgam po pa bsod nams rin chen). dam chos yid bzhin nor bu thar pa rin po che’i rgyan. Kathmandu: Gam-po-pa Library, 2003.
Pekar Sangpo (pad dkar bzang po). bstan pa spyi’i rgyas byed las mdo sde spyi’i rnam bzhag bka’ bsdu ba bzhi pa zhes bya ba’i bstan bcos. Beijing: mi rigs dpe skrun khang, 2006.
Rinchen Palzang (rin chen dpal bzang). mtshur phu dgon gyi dkar chag kun gsal me long. Beijing: mi rigs dpe skrun khang, 1995.
Tsongkhapa (tsong kha pa). lam rim chen mo. In rje tsong kha pa chen po’i gsung ’bum vol. 8, Zi ling: mtsho sngon mi rigs dpe skrun khang, 1999.
Bailey, D. R. Shackleton. The Śatapañcāśatka of Mātṛceta. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1951.
Cüppers, Cristoph. The IXth Chapter of the Samādhirājasūtra: A Text-Critical Contribution to the Study of Mahāyāna Sūtras. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 1990.
Dharmachakra Translation Committee, trans. (2013). The Play in Full (Lalitavistara, Toh 95). 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha.
———, trans. (2020a). The Absorption of the Miraculous Ascertainment of Peace (Praśāntaviniścayaprātihāryasamādhi, Toh 129). 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha.
———, trans. (2020b). The Absorption of the Thus-Gone One’s Wisdom Seal (Tathāgatajñānamudrāsamādhi, Toh 131). 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha.
———, trans. (2020c). Upholding the Roots of Virtue (Kuśalamūlasaṃparigraha, Toh 101). 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha.
———, trans. (2022). The Teaching on the Effulgence of Light (Raśmisamantamuktanirdeśa, Toh 55). 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha.
Dimitrov, Dragomir. “Two Female Bodhisattvas in Flesh and Blood,” in Aspects of the Female in Indian Culture. Marburg: Indica et Tibetica, 2004, pp. 3–30.
Gómez, Luis O. and Silk, Jonathan A. Studies in the Literature of the Great Vehicle: Three Mahāyāna Buddhist Texts. Ann Arbor: Collegiate Institute for the Study of Buddhist Literature and Center for South and Southeast Asian Studies, The University of Michigan, 1989.
Leslie, Julia. “A Bird Bereaved: The Identity and Significance of Valmiki’s Krauñcha,” in Journal of Indian Philosophy 26.5 (1998): 455–87.
Régamey, Konstanty. Philosophy in the Samādhirājasūtra. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1990.
Roberts, Peter Alan, trans. (2018). The White Lotus of the Good Dharma (Saddharmapuṇḍarīka, Toh 113). 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha.
———, trans. (2021a) The Stem Array (Gaṇḍavyūha, Toh 44-45). 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha.
———, trans. (2021b). The Ten Bhūmis (Daśabhūmika, Toh 44-31). 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha.
Rockwell, John Jr. Samādhi and Patient Acceptance: Four Chapters of the Samādhirāja-sūtra, Translated from the Sanskrit and Tibetan. M.A. thesis, Naropa Institute, Boulder, Colorado, 1980.
Skilton, Andrew. “Dating the Samādhirāja Sūtra,” In Journal of Indian Philosophy 27: 635–52. Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999.
Tatz, Mark. “Revelation in Mādhyamika Buddhism: Chapter Eleven of the Samādhirāja-sūtra (On Mastering the Sūtra).” Translated from the Tibetan with commentary. University of Washington, 1972.
Thrangu Rinpoche. King of Samadhi: Commentaries on the Samadhi Raja Sutra and the Song of Lodrö Thaye. Hong Kong, Boudhnath & Århus: Rangjung Yeshe Publications, 1994.