The Chapter on Medicines
- Palgyi Lhünpo
Degé Kangyur vol. 1 (’dul ba, ka), folios 277.b–311.a; vol. 2 (’dul ba, kha), folios 1.a–317.a; and vol. 3 (’dul ba, ga), folios 1.a–50.a
Translated by the Bhaiṣajyavastu Translation Team
under the patronage and supervision of 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha
The Bhaiṣajyavastu, “The Chapter on Medicines,” is a part of the Mūlasarvāstivāda Vinaya, the corpus of monastic law of one of the most influential Buddhist schools in India. This chapter deals with monastic regulations about medicines. At the same time, it also includes various elements not restricted to such rules: stories of the Buddha and his disciples, a lengthy story of the Buddha’s journey for the purpose of quelling an epidemic and converting a nāga, a number of stories of the Buddha’s former lives narrated by the Buddha himself, and a series of verses recited by the Buddha and his disciples about their former lives. Thus, this chapter preserves not only interesting information about medical knowledge shared by ancient Indian Buddhist monastics but also an abundance of Buddhist narrative literature.
This text was translated by the Bhaiṣajyavastu Translation Team. Fumi Yao translated the Tibetan text into English and prepared the ancillary materials. Shayne Clarke proofread the translation and ancillary materials.
The translation has been completed under the patronage and supervision of 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha.
We gratefully acknowledge the generous sponsorship of Leo Tong Chen and his family; Zhang Wei, Li Mo, Zhang Mo Tong and Zhang Mo Lin; (Chi Xian Ren) Mao Gui Rong and Chi Mei; and Joseph Tse 謝偉傑, Patricia Tse 鄒碧玲 and family, in dedication to all eczema sufferers. Their support has helped make the work on this translation possible.
There once was a sick monk in Śrāvastī. He requested a doctor, “Sir, prescribe medicine for me.”
Having asked the cause of the disease, the doctor said, “O noble one, have rice soup, and you will recover your health.”
“Sir,” he replied, “the Blessed One has not authorized that.”
“O noble one,” said the doctor, “since your Teacher is compassionate, it is likely that he will authorize it on this occasion.”
He related this matter to other monks, and then those monks reported it to the Blessed One. The Blessed One said, “If a doctor tells you to have rice soup, you can have rice soup as the doctor has prescribed. You should not have any regrets about this.”
When the Blessed One said, “You can have rice soup as the doctor has prescribed,” the sick monk’s attendant brought cold rice soup and gave it to him. Thereupon the doctor came and asked, “O noble one, are you well?”
“Sir, I am not well,” he answered.
“Did you not have rice soup?”
“How did you have it?”
“I had it cold.”
“O noble one, it wasn’t good to do that. Tomorrow, have some that’s warm.”
Then the attendant received rice soup again. Having obtained some that was cold, he heated it and gave it to the sick monk. When the doctor came and asked in the same way, he answered, “I am not well.”
“Did you not have rice soup?”
“How did you have it?”
“I had it after heating some that was cold.”
“O noble one, it wasn’t good to do that. Since that food had been cold and was heated, tomorrow have some that is warm from the beginning.”
“Then the attendant, having procured rice and a pot, began to cook the rice under a tree outside the monastery. [F.24.b] However, the food was ruined by a crow’s excrement, and the monk’s condition became worse. He related this matter to other monks, and those monks reported it to the Blessed One. The Blessed One said, “Monks, in such a case, you can demarcate a place for what is allowable.”
When the Blessed One said that they could demarcate a place for what is allowable, the monks did not know what such a place was and how large it should be. The Blessed One said, “Places for what is allowable are fivefold:1078 those related to erecting, those related to drawing attention, those like cowsheds, empty places, and those demarcated.
“Among these, those related to erecting are as follows: When dwellings are built, there the monk in charge of construction1079 first says, ‘This place will become the community’s place for what is allowable,’ making up his mind and performing the recitation. This is a place for what is allowable related to erecting.
“What are those related to drawing attention? When a stone is first set, the monk in charge of construction says to the neighboring monks, ‘Venerable ones, understand that this place will become the community’s place for what is allowable.’ Since the word ‘understand’ is said, this is called one related to drawing attention.
“What are those like cowsheds? Those where there are separate doors are called ones like cowsheds.
“What are empty places? Places that have been abandoned are called empty places.
“What are those demarcated? They have been demarcated with a formal act consisting of one motion and one proclamation.”
Since the monks did not know how to demarcate those, the Blessed One instructed them:1080 “If the community wishes, a place all forms of which are well fixed, which is within the boundary, and which has a fathom of space outside should be demarcated. Demarcation should be done as follows. When seats have been prepared, the gong has been struck, the monks have been questioned with the words of inquiry, [F.25.a] and all the members of the community are gathered and seated, one monk should propose a motion and perform the formal act: ‘May the community of honored ones listen. This place, all forms of which are well fixed, which is within the boundary, and which has a fathom of space outside, will be demarcated as the community’s place for what is allowable. If it is the right time for the community and the community permits it, may the community consent to demarcating this place …1081 as the community’s place for what is allowable.’ This is the motion.
“The formal act should be done as follows: ‘May the community of honored ones listen. This place …1082 is wished to be demarcated as the community’s place for what is allowable. If this place …1083 is to be demarcated by the community as the community’s place for what is allowable, those among you, venerable ones, who consent to demarcating this place …1084 as the community’s place for what is allowable should remain silent. Those who do not consent should speak.’
There lived a general named Siṃha in Vaiśālī. His neighbors [F.25.b] used to bring him meat, which he would eat. After he had seen the truth in the presence of the Blessed One, he did not eat meat but had what was brought to him given to monks. When the monks ate it, non-Buddhist ascetics criticized, insulted, and disparaged them: “Sirs, although we have procured meat for the general Siṃha and brought it, he did not eat it but gave it to the śramaṇas, the sons of the Śākyans. The śramaṇas, the sons of the Śākyans, ate the meat intentionally procured.”
When the monks reported this matter to the Blessed One, the Blessed One said, “I said that meat that is unallowable for three reasons should not be eaten. What are the three? I said that meat that was actually seen by oneself to have been procured for oneself is unallowable meat and should not be eaten; meat about which one has heard from someone reliable, ‘This has been procured for you,’ is unallowable meat and should not be eaten; and meat, about which a conjecture such as ‘This may have been procured for me by some means’ comes to one’s mind, is unallowable meat and should not be eaten.
“Monks, I said meat that is allowable for three reasons can be eaten. What are the three? I said that meat that was not actually seen by oneself to have been procured for oneself is allowable meat and can be eaten; meat, about which one hears from someone reliable, ‘This was not procured for you,’ is allowable meat and can be eaten; and meat, about which a conjecture such as ‘This was procured for me by some means’ does not come to one’s mind, is allowable meat and can be eaten.”
When a famine broke out, the monks were lying on their sides because of hunger. Brahmins and householders said to them, “O noble ones, [F.26.a] the teachings must be practiced devotedly. Why are you lying on your sides, not being intent on good morals?”
“Since a famine has broken out and we do not obtain enough almsfood, we are hungry and weak. That is why we are lying on our sides,” they replied.
“The Blessed One has not authorized it.”
“Since your Teacher has great compassion, it is likely that he will authorize it on this occasion.”
When a famine broke out, pious brahmins and householders said to the monks, “O noble ones, please have a meal here.”
Having had a meal, they went to the monastery, carrying almsfood that they had obtained previously. They wished to eat it because of the disaster of a famine. However, they did not because of some doubts. When the monks reported this matter to the Blessed One, the Blessed One said, “Monks, on account of that, I authorize you to eat what you have obtained previously, with the thought that it was received previously, if you so wish, at the time of a famine, which is such a calamity and difficulty. You should not have any regrets about this.”
When a famine broke out, pious brahmins and householders invited monks to a meal in their house. They ate but left some khādyaka.1089 The brahmins and householders said, “O noble ones, as we prepared it for you, please take it with you.” [F.26.b]
They departed, carrying it. After they departed, they wished to eat the food, but they did not eat it because of some doubts. When the monks reported this matter to the Blessed One, the Blessed One said, “Monks, on account of that, I authorize you to eat with the thought that it was given in a famine, which is such a calamity and difficulty. You should not have any regrets about this.”
When a famine broke out, pious brahmins and householders invited monks to a meal. After they had eaten, some food including khādyaka was left. When the monks departed, the brahmins and householders said, “We presented this only to you, noble ones. Since you came for it, we offer it only to you.” Thus, they took it away. Although the monks wished to eat it, they did not because of some doubts. When the monks reported this matter to the Blessed One, the Blessed One said, “Monks, on account of that, I authorize you, in the case of a famine, which is such a calamity and difficulty, to eat with the thought that it was presented earlier.”
Pious brahmins and householders obtained fruits that had grown in the western forest.1090 They thought, “Since these are difficult to obtain, we will offer them to the noble ones.” They gave them to monks who had already eaten and finished their meal. The monks did not eat them because they had some doubts, thinking that they had finished their meal.1091 The pious brahmins and householders said, “Noble ones, although when the Blessed One does not appear in the world, we have non-Buddhist ascetics as our fields of merit, now the Blessed One has appeared in the world, and you too are now our fields of merit. If [F.27.a] you do not take the fruits, should we go from this world to another, leaving aside provisions for traveling on the good path? So please, have compassion and take them.”1092
When the monks reported this matter to the Blessed One, the Blessed One said, “On account of that, I authorize you to eat them with the thought that they are difficult to obtain. You should not have any regrets about this. Here, fruits that grow in forests are as follows: grapes, pomegranates, kharjūra, chestnuts, almonds, urumāṇa, kurumāyikā, nikoca, babhū, and sin tsi ka.”1093
Pious brahmins and householders offered lotuses to monks when they had finished having their meal. Although the monks wished to eat them, they did not because they had some doubts, thinking that they had finished their meal. When the monks reported the matter to the Blessed One, the Blessed One said, “You can eat them with the thought that they are difficult to obtain. You should not have any regrets about this. Here, the types of lotus are as follows: roots of utpala, roots of padma, seeds of kumuda, and seeds of padma.”
The venerable Śāriputra’s bodily elements became unbalanced, and thus his blood and phlegm were disturbed. The venerable Mahāmaudgalyāyana, who was attending him, thought, “Although I have attended the venerable Śāriputra at my own discretion many times, I have never asked a doctor for advice. Now I will ask for advice.”1094 He requested a doctor, “Sir, since the venerable Śāriputra’s blood and phlegm are disturbed, prescribe medicine for him.”
The venerable Mahāmaudgalyāyana thought, “If I attend the venerable Śāriputra with the juice of ordinary padma roots, [F.27.b] that would not be right of me.” He entered a state of meditation through which, settling his mind, he disappeared from Śrāvastī, went to the bank of a lotus pond called Mandākinī, and approached the residence of the nāga king Supratiṣṭhita. The nāga king Supratiṣṭhita saw him and asked, “O noble one, for what business have you come?”
He replied, “The venerable Śāriputra’s blood and phlegm are disturbed, and a doctor prescribed the juice of padma roots for him.”
He then dove into Mandākinī Lotus Pond, pulled out some padma roots that were as large as a human, squeezed out the juice of the padma roots onto a padma leaf, and filled the venerable Mahāmaudgalyāyana’s bowl. The venerable Mahāmaudgalyāyana examined the crushed padma roots. The nāga king Supratiṣṭhita asked him, “O noble one, what are you looking at? Do you wish me to give you the padma roots?”
Thereupon the venerable Mahāmaudgalyāyana, carrying the bowl filled with the juice of the padma roots, disappeared from the bank of Mandākinī Lotus Pond and went to the Jetavana, the Park of Anāthapiṇḍada near Śrāvastī. The venerable Śāriputra then drank the juice of the padma roots as the doctor had prescribed, and his health returned.
The nāga king Supratiṣṭhita ordered the elephant Wearing a Black Costume, “Carry these padma roots, go to the Jetavana near Śrāvastī, and leave them in the yard of the monastery.” The elephant went as fast as the wind to the monastery in the Jetavana near Śrāvastī, put the padma roots in the yard, and returned. On the way home, it mated with a she-elephant in the forest. [F.28.a] Later, the she-elephant bore an elephant calf. As soon as it was born, it gave a lion’s roar. Frightened, the she-elephant defecated, urinated, and ran away, abandoning the elephant calf. Then a certain carpenter living in Rājagṛha went to the forest to cut some trees and saw the elephant calf. He took it home and fed it. As it was protected (pālita) with wealth (dhana), the elephant calf was named Dhanapālaka.1095
The venerable Mahāmaudgalyāyana ate one padma root, the venerable Śāriputra another, and the rest were distributed to the community, but some were left over. Then, after having thrown them away, the monks wished to eat them, but they did not, considering that they had thrown them away. When the monks reported this matter to the Blessed One, the Blessed One said, “Monks, divine padma roots are difficult for humans to obtain. Therefore, I authorize you to eat them with the thought that they are padma roots that are difficult to obtain. You should not have any regrets about this.”
At that time, there lived six people who were famous in the city of Bhadraṃkara for their great merit: namely, a householder named Miṇḍhaka and his wife, son, daughter-in-law, male slave, and female slave.
How was the householder Miṇḍhaka famous for his great merit? If he looked at empty storehouses, they became full as soon as he looked at them. Thus the householder Miṇḍhaka was famous for his great merit.
And Miṇḍhaka’s son? To his waist was tied a purse containing five hundred coins. [F.28.b] When he had spent a hundred or a thousand, it became full just as it had been and never became empty. Such was Miṇḍhaka’s son.
At a certain point the Blessed One, knowing it was the time to convert the householder Miṇḍhaka, said to the venerable Ānanda, “Ānanda, go and announce to the monks, ‘Monks, the Tathāgata will travel through the country to the city of Bhadraṃkara. Those among you who will travel in the country to the city of Bhadraṃkara with the Tathāgata should take their robes.’ ”
“Certainly, O Honored One,” replied the venerable Ānanda to the Blessed One, and he said to the monks, “O venerable ones, the Blessed One will travel through the country to the city of Bhadraṃkara. Those among you who will travel in the country to the city of Bhadraṃkara with the Tathāgata should take their robes.”
“Certainly, O venerable one,” replied the monks to the venerable Ānanda.
Thereupon the Blessed One traveled through the country to the city of Bhadraṃkara, himself self-controlled and his assembly self-controlled, himself pacified and his assembly pacified, himself an arhat and his assembly arhats.
When the Blessed One had shown a great miracle in Śrāvastī, the non-Buddhist ascetics had gone to the borderlands, and some of them had gone to the city of Bhadraṃkara and [F.29.a] settled there. When they heard that the śramaṇa Gautama was coming, they panicked and thought, “We were once expelled from the midland region by the śramaṇa Gautama. Since, if he comes here, we will certainly be expelled from here too, we must devise a plan regarding this.” They went to the houses that had provided them meals and said, “May the Dharma be attained! May the Dharma be attained!”1099
“O noble ones, what’s wrong?”
“Farewell, we are going.”1100
“Since we have seen your prosperity, we will leave before we see your decline.”
“O noble ones, what decline will there be for us?”
“O noble ones, if that is the case, are you abandoning us at the very moment when you should stay? Please stay. Please do not leave.”
“Why should we stay? You are incapable of listening to us,” they said.
“O noble ones, please tell us. We will listen to you.”
“Sirs,” they said, “flush out all the people near the city of Bhadraṃkara from their houses and lead them into the city of Bhadraṃkara. Cut the green grass. Destroy their residences. Cut down trees that bear flowers and fruits. Pour poison in the water.”
“O noble ones,” they replied, “please stay and we will do all of that.”
They then did flush out all the people near the city of Bhadraṃkara from their houses and led them into the city of Bhadraṃkara, cut the green grass, destroyed residences, cut down the flower and fruit trees, and poured poison in the water.
Then Śakra, Lord of the Gods, thought, “It would not be right for me to ignore disrespectful acts done against the Blessed One. [F.29.b] The Blessed One has attained supreme wisdom because he completed the six perfections through hundreds of thousands of austerities for three incalculably long eons. Should that Blessed One, who is excellent throughout the whole world, travel in an empty country?1101 I will now strive for the comfort of the Blessed One together with the community of disciples.”
He ordered the sons of the gods who send wind, “Go and dry up the poisoned waters.”
He ordered the sons of the gods who cause rain, “Fill the places they have dried up with water with the eight good qualities.”
Thereupon the sons of the gods who send wind dried up the poisoned waters. The sons of the gods who cause rain filled those places with water with the eight good qualities. The gods attendant on the Four Great Kings led people to live near the city of Bhadraṃkara, and the country became prosperous.
The non-Buddhist ascetics gathered people who had lived in the city of Bhadraṃkara and sent spies to see how the country was. They went and saw that the country was very prosperous. They returned and said, “Sirs, we have never seen the country in such prosperity.”
“Sirs, do you see?” replied the non-Buddhist ascetics. “Will he who converts even the land not convert you too? We bid you our final farewell. This will be the last we see of you. We are leaving.”
“O noble ones, please stay,” they implored them. “What harm will the śramaṇa Gautama do to you? He is a mendicant, and you are mendicants who live on alms, too. [F.30.a] Why would he prevent you from begging for alms?”
The non-Buddhist ascetics said, “We will stay if you promise us to make an agreement that none of you will go to see the śramaṇa Gautama, and that if anyone goes, a fine of sixty kārṣāpaṇas shall be imposed on him.”
They agreed and made that promise.
Thereupon the Blessed One, traveling through the country, arrived in due course at the city of Bhadraṃkara, and stayed in a certain place south of Bhadraṃkara. At that time, a daughter of a brahmin in Kapilavastu was living in Bhadraṃkara after her marriage. Standing on a wall, she saw the Blessed One in the dark and thought, “This is that Blessed One, the joy of the lineage of the Śākyans, who abandoned the throne belonging to the lineage of the Śākyans and went forth. If I had a ladder here, I would descend, holding a lamp.”
Then the Blessed One, knowing her mind with his own mind, created a ladder. Pleased in her mind, delighted, and gratified, she descended the ladder, holding a lamp, and went to the Blessed One. When she arrived, she put the lamp in front of the Blessed One, bowed low until her forehead touched the Blessed One’s feet, and sat down to hear the Dharma. The Blessed One knew her thinking, proclivity, disposition, and nature and preached the Dharma that was appropriate for her and that caused her to penetrate the four truths of the noble ones. . . . “I embrace my faith as one who seeks refuge.”
The Blessed One then said to the girl, “Girl, now you should go to the householder Miṇḍhaka. When you have arrived, greet him on my behalf and say, ‘Householder, it is for your sake that I have come here, but you keep your door shut. Is it appropriate to act in such a manner as you do to a guest?’ If [F.30.b] he says that the group of people has made an agreement, say, ‘To your son’s waist is tied a purse containing five hundred coins. When he has spent a hundred or a thousand, it becomes just as it was and never becomes empty. Why can you not pay the sixty kārṣāpaṇas and come?’ ”
“Certainly, O Honored One,” replied the girl, who then departed. The Blessed One exercised his magical power so that she went to the householder Miṇḍhaka without being noticed by anyone. When she arrived, she said, “O householder, the Blessed One greets you.”
“Girl, I bow to the Buddha, the Blessed One,” he replied.
“O householder, the Blessed One said, ‘For your sake I have come here, but you keep your door shut. Is it reasonable to act in such a manner as you do to a guest?’ ”
“O householder, the Blessed One said, ‘To your son’s waist is tied a purse containing five hundred coins. When he has spent a hundred or a thousand, it becomes just as it was and never becomes empty. Why can you not pay the sixty kārṣāpaṇas and come?’ ’’
He thought, “Since no one knows this, he, the Blessed One, must be omniscient. I will go.”
He put sixty kārṣāpaṇas at his door, descended the ladder as the brahmin girl had told him, and went to the Blessed One. When he arrived, he bowed low until his forehead touched the Blessed One’s feet, and then sat before the Blessed One to hear the Dharma. The Blessed One knew the householder Miṇḍhaka’s thinking, proclivity, disposition, and nature and [F.31.a] preached the Dharma that caused him to penetrate the four truths of the noble ones. Having heard it, the householder Miṇḍhaka … actualized the fruit of stream-entry.
Having seen the truth, he asked, “O Blessed One, will these people living in Bhadraṃkara attain such good qualities?”
“Householder,” the Blessed One answered, “it depends on you whether many people will do so.”
Thereupon the householder Miṇḍhaka bowed low until his forehead touched the Blessed One’s feet, and then departed from the Blessed One’s presence. He went home, arranged a mountain of kārṣāpaṇas in the middle of the city, and spoke a verse:
“It will be good,” he answered.
“If so,” they said, “let us all break the agreement that we made. Is there any objection to this?”
They broke the agreement and began to leave. They jostled one another, however, and were not able to go out. The yakṣa Vajrapāṇi, out of compassion for these people to be led, hurled his vajra and broke the wall, allowing hundreds of thousands of beings to go out, some prompted by curiosity and others spurred by their previous roots of merit. Many people gathered and sat down in an area of one yojana around the Blessed One.
Then the Blessed One overwhelmed the assembly with his splendor.1102 He sat on the seat prepared for him in front of the community of monks and preached the Dharma, which generated roots of merit in the personal continuums of many beings. [F.31.b] Upon hearing it, some actualized the fruit of stream-entry … and some sought refuge and accepted the rules of training. [B58]
As the Blessed One preached the Dharma for a very long time, the mealtime passed. The householder Miṇḍhaka said, “O Blessed One, please have a meal.”
“Householder, the mealtime has passed,” answered the Blessed One.
“O Blessed One, what is appropriate after the mealtime?” he asked.
They prepared the khādyaka to be eaten after the mealtime. Then the householder Miṇḍhaka satisfied the community of monks headed by the Buddha with the khādyaka to be eaten after the mealtime and drinks to be drunk after the mealtime. Thereupon the Blessed One established the householder Miṇḍhaka, along with his attendants, in the truths, converted also the inhabitants of the hamlet, and departed.1105
“They may be accepted,” replied the Blessed One.
Since there was no one who makes things allowable, the Blessed One said, “A novice should do so.”
The venerable Upālin asked the Buddha, the Blessed One, “O Honored One, although the Blessed One has prohibited acceptance of gold and silver in the tenth rule of training for novices,1107 [F.32.a] the Blessed One has now said, ‘A novice should accept them.’ What does this mean?”
The Blessed One replied, “It may be accepted.”
The monks did not know who should accept it and how. The Blessed One explained, “If there is no layman or novice, a monk should carry it by himself after having taken formal possession of it as medicine to be consumed within seven days.”
The monks did not know how to take formal possession of it. The Blessed One instructed them,1110 “After having washed one’s hands, one should take it, place it on the left hand, cover it with the right hand, sit before another monk, and say, ‘O venerable one, pay attention, please. I, named So-and-so (the monk says his name), take formal possession of this medicine as medicine to be consumed within seven days for myself and my fellow monks.’ He should then say this a second and a third time.”
The venerable Upālin asked the Buddha, the Blessed One, “O Honored One, the Blessed One has said that one may take formal possession of guḍa as medicine to be consumed within seven days. Who should eat it?”
Monks traveling through the country put guḍa in rice and barley groats. Although they wished to eat it as they were fatigued from traveling, they did not because of some doubts. When the monks reported this matter to the Blessed One, the Blessed One said, “Monks, since it would be insubstantial as a meal, you may eat some that has been put in rice after shaking the rice grains off [F.32.b] and some that has been put in barley groats after washing it in water.”
They were not able to wash some that had melted, and it became mixed with the meal. The Blessed One said, “You should cut it with a piece of bamboo and wash it in water.”
The monks, feeling doubtful, inquired of the Buddha, the Blessed One, the one who severs all doubts, “O Honored One, what karma did Miṇḍhaka and his wife, son, daughter-in-law, male slave, and female slave create that matured to cause these six to have great merit, see the truth in the presence of the Blessed One, and please the Blessed One and not displease him?”
“Monks,” the Blessed one replied, “the actions were performed and accumulated by these people themselves, accruing a heap of karma, . . . .
“Monks, once in the city of Vārāṇasī a king named Brahmadatta was ruling over the country.1114 At that time, astrologers predicted a twelve-year drought in Vārāṇasī, saying, ‘There will be a great famine of “living by means of a stick.” ’
“There are three types of famine, namely, ‘basket,’ ‘white bones,’ and ‘living by means of a stick.’1115 Among these, ‘basket’ means that people fill a basket with seeds and put it aside for the sake of future beings and think, ‘After our death, these seeds will help those people.’ As this type of famine is related to a basket, it is called ‘basket.’ What is ‘white bones’? At that time people collect bones, boil them until they become white, [F.33.a] and then drink the liquid. As this type of famine is related to white bones, it is called ‘white bones.’ What is ‘living by means of a stick’? At that time people dig lumps of grains with a stick out of a hole in a granary, boil them in a pot filled with much water, and drink the water. As this type of famine is related to a stick, it is called ‘living by means of a stick.’
“Thereupon King Brahmadatta proclaimed with the ringing of bells in Vārāṇasī, ‘Listen, citizens living in my country! Astrologers have predicted that because of a twelve-year drought there will be a great famine of “basket,” “white bones,” and “living by means of a stick.”1116 Whoever among you has food for twelve years should stay. Those who do not should go anywhere they like and come back when there is no famine but an abundant harvest.’
“At that time there was a householder in Vārāṇasī who was rich and had great wealth, many possessions, and a large family. He called the storehouse keeper and asked, ‘My good man, is there enough food for me and my attendants to survive for twelve years?’
“ ‘Yes, there is, Master,’ the storehouse keeper answered.
“And so he stayed. However, famines occurred continuously, and his storehouses became exhausted. All his attendants died, and only six people including himself survived. When the householder then swept his storehouses, he obtained one prastha of grains. His wife poured it into a pot and boiled it.
“When the buddhas do not appear, there appear self-awakened ones as the only fields of merit in the world . . . .1117 At that time a certain self-awakened one arrived at Vārāṇasī, having traveled in the country. He dressed in the morning, took his bowl and his robe, and entered Vārāṇasī for alms. The householder was then preparing his meal. Begging for alms, the self-awakened one [F.33.b] arrived in due course at his house. When the householder saw him, whose body was attractive and whose mind was pure, he thought, ‘Even if I eat this now, I will certainly die. I will give my portion of this to this mendicant.’ He said to his wife, ‘Good lady, I will offer my portion to this mendicant.’
“ ‘Why should I eat, while my husband does not?’ she thought, and she said, ‘My dear, I will also offer my portion to him.’
“His son, daughter-in-law, male slave, and female slave also considered likewise and gave up their portions. Thereupon they all met together and offered almsfood to the self-awakened one. Since such great people do not show things by words but with their bodies, he soared high into the air as if a haṃsa king had stretched its wings to fly, and began to display miracles, namely, blazing fire, radiating light, causing rain to fall, and causing lightning to strike in their presence. Since ordinary people tend to be swiftly attracted by magical powers, they bowed down to his feet like trees that had been cut at the roots and uttered their aspirations.
“The householder made this aspiration: ‘By this root of merit from my serving a man who is truly worthy of offerings, when I look at empty warehouses and storehouses, may they become full as soon as I look at them! Having attained such qualities, may I please a teacher who is nobler even than this man and not displease him!’
“The wife made this aspiration: ‘By this root of merit…,1118 when I cook for one person, may the food be eaten by a hundred or a thousand people and never be exhausted until I stop preparing it…!’1119 [F.34.a]
“The son made this aspiration: ‘By this root of merit…, may a purse containing five hundred coins tied to my waist, when I spend a hundred or a thousand of them, become full just as it was and never become empty…!’
“The daughter-in-law made this aspiration: ‘By this root of merit…, when I prepare incense for one person, may a hundred or a thousand people enjoy it and may it not be exhausted until I stop preparing it…!’
“Their male slave made this aspiration: ‘By this root of merit…, when I plow one furrow in a field, may seven furrows be plowed…!’
“Their female slave made this aspiration: ‘By this root of merit…, when I hull some grains in a vessel, may they fill seven vessels…!’
“When they had all made such aspirations, that great man, the self-awakened one, having entertained compassion for them, departed through his magical power. At that time, King Brahmadatta had gone up to the terrace and was sitting there. The shadow of the one flying with his magical power fell on King Brahmadatta. [F.34.b] He looked up and saw the self-awakened one and wondered, ‘Whose root of poverty was removed by a large plow, which is this great man’s magical power?’
“Thereafter, when that householder looked at his warehouses and storehouses with great hope,1120 he saw them full. He said to his wife, ‘Since my wish has been fulfilled first, now we should see yours.’ Indeed, when the female slave hulled some grains in a mortar, they increased sevenfold. When the wife cooked food in a pot for one person, it became food to be eaten by all of them, along with a thousand neighboring beings.
“Thereupon the householder proclaimed with the ringing of bells in Vārāṇasī, ‘Sirs, whoever among you has a need should come!’
“There was then a loud, noisy cry in Vārāṇasī. Upon hearing that, the king asked, ‘Sirs, what is this loud, noisy cry?’
“ ‘Your Majesty,’ his ministers replied, ‘a householder named So-and-so has opened his warehouses and storehouses.’
“ ‘Did the householder open his warehouses and storehouses only after everyone in the world has died?’ asked the king. ‘Sirs, summon that householder.’
“They summoned him, and then the king asked him, ‘Householder, did you open your warehouses and storehouses only after everyone in the world has died?’
“ ‘Your Majesty, whose warehouses and storehouses were opened? (It is not the case that I opened my warehouses and storehouses after concealing foods there for a long time, but seeds sowed today bore fruit just today.)’
“ ‘What does that mean?’ demanded the king.
“He then explained what had happened in detail. The king asked, ‘Householder, did you offer a meal to that great man?’
“ ‘Your Majesty, I did.’
“He became more pious and spoke a verse:
“What do you think, monks? The householder and his wife, son, daughter-in-law, male slave, and female slave were indeed this householder Miṇḍhaka and his wife, son, daughter-in-law, male slave, and female slave. Because of the maturation of that karma, namely, their performing services for a self-awakened one and making aspirations, these six became possessors of great merit, saw the truth in my presence, who is a teacher nobler than a hundred billion self-awakened ones. They pleased me and did not displease me.
“Therefore, monks, the maturation of entirely negative actions is entirely negative; the maturation of entirely positive actions is entirely positive … you should seek . . . . Monks, that is how you must train.”
|AA||Aṅguttaranikāya-Aṭṭhakathā. Edited by Walleser and Kopp (1924–56).|
|AKBh||Abhidharmakośabhāṣya. Edited by Pradhan = Pradhan 1967.|
|AKUp||Abhidharmakośopāyikā-ṭīkā. (Section numbers are based on Honjō 1984 and 2014.)|
|AN||Aṅguttaranikāya = Morris et al. 1885–1961.|
|AdhvG||Adhikaraṇavastu. Edited by Gnoli (1978).|
|Ap||Apadāna = Lilley 2000.|
|BAK||Bodhisattvāvadānakalpalatā = Chandra Das and Vidyābhūshana 1940.|
|BHSD||Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary. Vol. II Dictionary = Edgerton 1953.|
|BhvY||Bhaiṣajyavastu. Japanese translation by Yao = Yao 2013a.|
|CPD||The Critical Pāli Dictionary = Trenckner et al. 1924–92.|
|ChDas||Tibetan English Dictionary = Das 1902.|
|D||Degé xylograph (scanned and published by the Buddhist Digital Resource Center).|
|DA||Dīghanikāya-Aṭṭhakathā = Rhys Davids et al. 1968–71.|
|DN||Dīghanikāya = Rhys Davids and Carpenter 1890–1911.|
|DPPN||Dictionary of Pāli Proper Names = Malalasekera 1937.|
|DhpA||Dhammapadatthakathā = Norman 1906.|
|Divy||Divyāvadāna = Cowell and Neil  1987.|
|DĀ 35||Ambāṣṭhasūtra. Edited by Melzer (2010a).|
|DĀc||Dīrghāgama. Chinese translation (Taishō no. 1 Chang ahan jing 長阿含經).|
|EĀc||Ekottarikāgama Chinese translation (Taishō no. 125 Zengyi ahan jing 増壹阿含經).|
|GBhv||The Bhaiṣajyavastu in the Gilgit manuscript = GMNAI i, 46–134.|
|GM||Gilgit manuscripts of the Vinayavastu edited by Dutt = Dutt 1942–50 (page numbers of Bhv, which is in part i, is referred to just with “GM,” and those of other vastus with “GM ii, iii, and iv,” with part numbers).|
|GMNAI i||Gilgit Manuscripts in the National Archives of India: Facsimile Edition vol. 1, Vinaya Texts = Clarke 2014.|
|J||Jātaka = Fausbøll [1877–96] 1962–64.|
|Jäschke||Tibetan English Dictionary = Jäschke 1881.|
|KA||Kaṭhināvadāna = Degener 1990.|
|MN||Majjhimanikāya = Trenckner et al. [1888–1925] 1974–79.|
|MPS||Mahāparinirvāṇa-sūtra = Waldschmidt 1950–51.|
|MSA||Mahāsudarśanāvadāna in the Gilgit manuscripts.|
|MW||A Sanskrit-English Dictionary = Monier-Williams 1899.|
|MdhA||Māndhātāvadāna in the Gilgit manuscripts.|
|Merv-av||Avadāna anthology from Merv = Karashima and Vorobyova-Desyatovskaya 2015.|
|Mma||Mahāmantrānusāriṇī-sūtra = Skilling 1994–97, 608–22.|
|Mmvr||Mahāmāyūrīvidyārajñī = Takubo 1972.|
|Mv||Mahāvastu = Senart 1882–97.|
|Mvy||Mahāvyutpatti = Sakaki 1916.|
|MĀc||Madhyamāgama Chinese translation (Taishō no. 26 Zhong ahan jing 中阿含經).|
|NBhv||The newly identified Bhaiṣajyavastu fragments held in a private collection, Virginia, and the Schøyen Collection.|
|Negi||Tibetan–Sanskrit Dictionary = Negi 1993–2005.|
|PTSD||PTS’s Pāli–English Dictionary = Rhys Davids and Stede 1921–25.|
|Ph||phug brag manuscript.|
|Prjv||Pravrajyāvastu. Translation in Miller 2018.|
|PrjvVW||Pravrajyāvastu edited by Vogel and Wille. I: Vogel and Wille 1984; II: 1992; III: 1996; IV: 2002 (all these files are now available in one pdf file online, Vogel and Wille 2014).|
|R||Ragya printed Kangyur.|
|S||Stok Palace Manuscript.|
|SHT||Sanskrithandschriften aus den Turfanfunden.|
|SN||Saṃyuttanikāya = Feer [1884–98] 1975–2006.|
|SWTF||Sanskrit-Wörterbuch der buddhistischen Texte aus den Turfan-Funden = Waldschmidt et al. 1973–2018.|
|SbhvG||Saṅghabhedavastu. edited by Gnoli (1977–78).|
|Sh||Shey Palace manuscript.|
|Sn||Suttanipāta = Andersen and Smith  1984.|
|Sumav||Sumāgadhāvadāna = Iwamoto 1979.|
|SĀc||Saṃyuktāgama Chinese translation (Taishō no. 99 Za ahan jing 雜阿含經).|
|SĀc2||Saṃyuktāgama Chinese translation (Taishō no. 100 Bieyi za ahan jing 別譯雜阿含經).|
|SĀc3||Saṃyuktāgama Chinese translation (Taishō no. 101 Za ahan jing 雜阿含經).|
|Taishō||Taishō shinshū daizōkyō 大正新脩大藏經. 100 vols. Tokyo: Taishō Issaikyō Kankōkai 大正一切經刊行會, 1924–34.|
|TheraG||Theragāthā = Oldenberg and Pischel 1883.|
|U||Urga printed Kangyur .|
|Ud||Udāna = Steinthal 1982.|
|Uv||Udānavarga = Bernhard 1965–68, i.|
|UvTib||Udānavarga in Tibetan translation = Champa Thupten Zongtse 1990.|
|VS||Vinayasūtra transliterated by Study Group of Sanskrit Manuscripts in Tibetan dBu med Script.|
|Vin||Vinayapiṭaka in Pāli = Oldenberg [1879–83] 1982–1997.|
|Viś I||The first story of Viśvantara in the Bhv.|
|Viś II||The second story of Viśvantara in the Bhv.|
|Viś III||The story of Viśvantara in the Sbhv.|
|Viś IV||Viśvantarāvadāna in the Gilgit manuscripts.|
|ŚavG||Śayanāsanavastu. Edited by Gnoli (1978).|