Unraveling the Intent
Degé Kangyur, vol. 49 (mdo sde, ca), folios 1.b–55.b
Translated by the Buddhavacana Translation Group (Vienna)
under the patronage and supervision of 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha
First published 2020
Current version v 1.0.16 (2022)
Generated by 84000 Reading Room v2.17.7
84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha is a global non-profit initiative to translate all the Buddha’s words into modern languages, and to make them available to everyone.
This work is provided under the protection of a Creative Commons CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution - Non-commercial - No-derivatives) 3.0 copyright. It may be copied or printed for fair use, but only with full attribution, and not for commercial advantage or personal compensation. For full details, see the Creative Commons license.
In Unraveling the Intent, the Buddha gives a systematic overview of his three great cycles of teachings, which he refers to in this text as the “three Dharma wheels” (tridharmacakra). In the process of delineating the meaning of these doctrines, the Buddha unravels several difficult points regarding the ultimate and relative truths, the nature of reality, and the contemplative methods conducive to the attainment of complete and perfect awakening, and he also explains what his intent was when he imparted teachings belonging to each of the three Dharma wheels. In unambiguous terms, the third wheel is proclaimed to be of definitive meaning. Through a series of dialogues with hearers and bodhisattvas, the Buddha thus offers a complete and systematic teaching on the Great Vehicle, which he refers to here as the Single Vehicle.
Translation by the Buddhavacana Translation Group.
The text was translated by Gregory Forgues and edited by Casey Kemp. With special thanks to Harunaga Isaacson, Matthew Kapstein, Klaus-Dieter Mathes, Jonathan Silk, Lambert Schmithausen, Tom Tillemans, and William Waldron for their helpful comments and advice.
The translation was completed under the patronage and supervision of 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha.
The generous sponsorship of Qiang Li (李强) and Ya Wen (文雅), which helped make the work on this translation possible, is most gratefully acknowledged.
Then the bodhisattva Mañjuśrī addressed the Blessed One, “Blessed One, when you mention ‘the truth body of the tathāgatas,’ what is the defining characteristic of this truth body of the tathāgatas?”
The Blessed One answered, “Mañjuśrī, the truth body of the tathāgatas is characterized when one has fully achieved a shift in one’s basis of existence, the emergence [from cyclic existence] through the practice of the stages and the perfections.308 Because of the two [following] reasons, you should know that this truth body is characterized by inconceivability: (1) it is beyond mental elaborations and is not produced by intentional action,309 (2) while beings are fixated on mental elaborations and produced by intentional action.”
“Blessed One, is the shift in the hearers’ and solitary realizers’ basis of existence also designated as the truth body?”
“Mañjuśrī, it is not.”
“Blessed One, how should it be called?”
“Mañjuśrī, it should be called the liberation body.310 With regard to the liberation body, the tathāgatas are similar and equal to the hearers and solitary realizers, but, on account of the truth body, they are distinctively superior to them. This being so, they are also distinctively superior to them in terms of the distinctively immeasurable aspect of their positive qualities. This is not easy to illustrate with examples.”
“Blessed One, how should we consider those who have the characteristic of manifesting themselves through the birth of a tathāgata?”
“Mañjuśrī, those who have the characteristic of the emanation body311 resemble those who manifest in the world realms. You should see them as those whose characteristic is to be established by the sovereign power312 of the buddhas, being fully adorned with the ornaments of the tathāgatas’ qualities. The truth body does not have this manifestation of arising.”
“Blessed One, how should we consider the skillful means employed by the emanation body [for the sake of liberating beings from cyclic existence]?”313 [F.49.b]
“Mañjuśrī, being conceived in a family renowned to be powerful or honorable in all the buddha fields of the trichiliocosm, taking birth, growing up, enjoying desirous objects, leaving home, displaying immediately the practice of austerities, renouncing them, and displaying all the stages of the complete and perfect awakening should be considered as the skillful means of the emanation body.”
“Blessed One, through which teachings emanating from their sovereign power do the tathāgatas bring to maturity those spiritually immature beings who have been converted? How do they liberate spiritually mature beings by means of the very referential object [taught in the Great Vehicle]?”
“Mañjuśrī, they bring them to maturity through three teachings: the sūtras, the Vinaya, and the mātṛkās.”
“Blessed One, what are the sūtras, the Vinaya, and the mātṛkās?”
“Mañjuśrī, it is like this: sūtras are teachings that gather the subject matter of various Dharma methods in four, nine, or twenty-nine topics.
1. “What are the four topics? They are (i) what was heard, (ii) taking refuge, (iii) the training, and (iv) the awakening.
2. “What are the nine topics? They are (i) concepts of sentient beings, (ii) their possessions, (iii) their birth, (iv) their existence after birth, (v) their affliction and purification, (vi) their diversity, (vii) the teacher, (viii) the teaching, and (ix) the assembly.
3. “What are the twenty-nine topics? They are the topics related to affliction: (i) [the phenomena] included in the conditioned, (ii) their progressive activity, (iii) the cause of their arising in future lives once they have been conceptualized as a person, and (iv) the cause of their arising in future lives once they have been conceptualized as phenomena.
“They are also the topics related to purification: [F.50.a] (v) the referential objects that are taken as reference points;314 (vi) the exertion in [the practice of] these very [objects]; (vii) mental abiding;315 (viii) blissful abiding in this very life; (ix) the referential objects that liberate from all suffering; (x) the three kinds of comprehension, which are the comprehension of the basis of error, the comprehension of the basis of error with respect to beings’ conceptions for nonpractitioners, and the comprehension of the basis of humility for those who practice Dharma; (xi) the basis of practice; (xii) the actualization [of practice];316 (xiii) the practice; (xiv) [the practice] as the central activity; (xv) its aspects; (xvi) its referential objects; (xvii) the skills in the investigation of what has already been eliminated and what not yet been eliminated; (xviii) [the factors] that are distractions from practice; (xix) [the factors] that are not distractions from practice; (xx) the source of nondistraction; (xxi) the yoga of clear mindfulness317 that is protected by318 the practice; (xxii) the benefit of practice; (xxiii) its stability; (xiv) the unification with the lord of the noble [practice]; (xv) the unification with its retinue and entourage; (xxvi) the realization of true reality; (xxvii) the attainment of nirvāṇa; (xxviii) the fact that the well-expounded Dharma and Vinaya are superior to the correct views of mundane beings and all nonpractitioners; and (xxix) the impairments resulting from not practicing. Thus, Mañjuśrī, without practicing the well-expounded Dharma and Vinaya, impairments will ensue, and this is not because one has faulty views.
“Mañjuśrī, the Vinaya is my teaching on prātimokṣa for hearers and bodhisattvas, as well as that which is associated with it.” [F.50.b]
“Blessed One, how many topics are included in [the teaching on the] prātimokṣa of bodhisattvas?”
“Mañjuśrī, there are seven topics: (1) the teachings on the ceremony of taking [the vows of the bodhisattva discipline], (2) the teachings on the basis of serious downfalls,319 (3) the teachings on the basis of transgressions, (4) the teachings on the nature of transgressions, (5) the teachings on the nature of what are not transgressions, (6) the teachings on the emergence from transgressions, and (7) the teachings on the abandonment of the vows.
“Mañjuśrī, the mātṛkās are the teachings that I imparted and categorized into eleven topics. What are these eleven topics? They are (1) the defining characteristic of the conventional, (2) the defining characteristic of the ultimate, (3) the defining characteristic of referential objects consisting of the awakening factors, (4) the defining characteristic of their features; (5) the defining characteristic of the[ir] nature, (6) the defining characteristic of their result, (7) the defining characteristic of the description of the experience of them, (8) the defining characteristic of the factors disrupting them,320 (9) the defining characteristic of the factors conducive to them, (10) the defining characteristic of the defects related to them, and (11) the defining characteristic of their benefit.
1. “Mañjuśrī, consider that the defining characteristic of the conventional has three subtopics: (1) the teaching on persons, (2) the teaching on the imaginary nature, and (3) the teaching on the activity, movement, and action of phenomena.
2. “Consider the defining characteristic of the ultimate in terms of the teaching on the seven aspects of true reality.321
3. “Consider the defining characteristic of referential objects in terms of the teaching on all the things corresponding to cognitive objects.
4. “Consider the defining characteristic of [their] features in terms of the teaching on the eight features of the analysis of cognitive objects. What are these eight? They are (i) the truth of cognitive objects, (ii) their determination,322 (iii) their faults, (iv) their positive qualities, (v) the methods for analyzing, (vi) the processes related to them, (vii) the principles of reason, and (viii) the condensed and extensive presentations of cognitive objects.
i. “With respect to these eight points, the truth of cognitive objects is true reality.
ii. “The determination of cognitive objects consists in establishing the person or the imaginary essence [F.51.a] or in establishing categorical, analytical, interrogative, and dismissive answers as well as secret instructions.323
iii. “The faults of cognitive objects are the defects of phenomena related to affliction, which I have taught in several ways.
iv. “The positive qualities of cognitive objects are the benefits arising from phenomena related to purification, which I have taught in several ways.
v. “The methods for analyzing cognitive objects includes six points: (a) the method for analyzing the meaning of true reality; (b) the method for analyzing attainments; (c) the method for analyzing explanations; (d) the method for analyzing the elimination of the two extremes; (e) the method for analyzing the inconceivable; and (f) the method for analyzing the underlying intention.
vi. “The processes related to cognitive objects are the three times, the three defining characteristics of the conditioned, and the four conditions.
vii. “There are four principles of reason in the analysis of cognitive objects: (a) the principle of reason based on dependence, (b) the principle of reason based on cause and effect, (c) the principle of reason based on logical proof, and (d) the principle of reason based on the nature of phenomena itself.
a. “The arising of conditioned phenomena and the causes for their being expressed through conventions, as well as related causal conditions, constitute the principle of reason based on dependence.
b. “The causes that will bring about a result,324 a completion, or an action once phenomena have arisen, as well as related causal conditions, constitute the principle of reason based on cause and effect.
c. “The causes establishing the meaning and bringing about the valid understanding of the thesis,325 the demonstration, and the statement of a proof, as well as related causal conditions, constitute the principle of reason based on logical proof.326 This logical proof is, moreover, of two kinds: valid and invalid. Among these, five are characterized as valid327 and seven as invalid. What are the five logical proofs characterized as valid? They are the logical proofs characterized by (I) a perception that is a direct cognition of the thing to establish,328 (II) a perception that is a direct cognition of something existing in dependence on the thing to establish,329 (III) a demonstration through an instance belonging to the same class,330 [F.51.b] (IV) an actual demonstration, and (V) a citation from a valid scripture.331
“With regard to those five logical proofs:
I. “The logical proof characterized by the perception that is a direct cognition of the thing to establish consists [for example] in perceiving through a direct cognition that all conditioned phenomena are impermanent, suffering, and without a self as well as anything conforming to this.332
II. “The logical proof characterized by a direct cognition of something existing in dependence on the thing to establish consists in inferring something not directly perceptible by means of something333 [directly perceptible], as well as in anything conforming to this, [for example], (A) the perception as a direct cognition of the principle of impermanence that exists in dependence on the things to establish, [namely,] the momentariness of all conditioned phenomena, the existence of a next life, and the consequence of good and bad deeds;334 (B) the perception as direct cognition of the diversity of beings that exists in dependence on the thing to establish, [namely,] the diversity of karma; or (C) the direct cognition of the happiness and suffering of beings that exists in dependence on the things to establish, [namely,] virtue and nonvirtue].335
III. “You should know that the logical proof characterized by a demonstration through an instance belonging to the same class of phenomena336 consists in anything conforming to this, [for example] in the demonstration of external and internal conditioned phenomena through (A) the perception of death and rebirth, being born and other forms of suffering,337 and causal dependence,338 which are established as facts in all worlds or (B) the perception of wealth and misery, which are established as facts in all worlds, including those of future lives.339
IV. “Thus, you should know that a logical proof characterized by one of the three proofs mentioned above340 is an actual demonstration because it is conclusive with respect to the thing that must be established.
V. “Mañjuśrī, you should know that the logical proof characterized by a citation from a valid scripture consists in the words taught by quoting the omniscient ones, such as ‘Nirvāṇa is peace’ and other similar statements. [F.52.a]
“Therefore, on account of these five kinds of characteristics, an analysis of cognitive objects founded on the principle of reason based on logical proof is valid.341 Because such an analysis is valid, you should rely on it.”
“Blessed One, how many qualities do those we should consider as having the defining characteristics of the omniscient tathāgatas have?”
“Mañjuśrī, they have five qualities: (A) wherever they manifest, they are renowned in this world for their omniscience; (B) they have the thirty-two marks of a great being; (C) by means of their ten powers, they eliminate all qualms affecting beings; (D) the words of the Dharma they teach through the four kinds of assurance cannot be refuted or disputed by any opponent; (E) on the basis of their Dharma and Vinaya, the eightfold noble path as well as the four noble truths manifest for those who have renounced cyclic existence.342 Thus, you should know that their manifestation, marks, elimination of doubts, freedom from refutations and disputes, and support [for those who have renounced cyclic existence] constitute the defining characteristic of the omniscient tathāgatas.
“Thus, the principle of reason based on logical proof is valid on account of the five characteristics included within these valid cognitions: direct cognitions, inferences, and authoritative scriptures.343
“What are the seven logical proofs characterized as invalid? They are the logical proofs characterized by (I) a perception that conforms with something other than the thing to be established,344 (II) a perception that does not conform with anything other than the thing to establish,345 (III) a perception that conforms with all things,346 (IV) a perception that does not conform with anything,347 (V) a demonstration through an instance belonging to a different class of phenomena,348 (VI) a demonstration that is not actually demonstrating anything, and (VII) a citation drawn from an invalid scripture.
“The logical proof characterized by a perception that does not conform with anything349 is ascertained when the defining characteristics of the proof and the premise do not conform with one another because they are incompatible in terms of reason, essence, karma, quality, or cause and effect.350 [F.52.b]
“Mañjuśrī, the logical proof characterized by a perception that does not conform with anything351 is comprised by the logical proof characterized by a perception that conforms with something other than the thing to be established352 and similar instances. This proof is therefore inconclusive with respect to the thing to establish.353 This is called an unestablished logical proof.354
“Moreover, the logical proof characterized by a perception that conforms with all things355 is comprised by the logical proof characterized by a perception that does not conform with anything other than the thing to establish356 and similar instances. This proof is therefore inconclusive with respect to the thing to establish. This is also called an unestablished logical proof.357
“Because these logical proofs are not established, the analysis is invalid according to the principle of reason based on logical proof. Since this analysis is invalid, you should not rely on it. You should know that the logical proof characterized by a citation from an invalid scripture is invalid by nature.
d. “Whether tathāgatas manifest or not, the constancy of the domain of truth, the nature of phenomena, on account of the constancy of phenomena, constitutes the principle of reason based on the nature of phenomena.358
viii. “The condensed and the extensive presentation of cognitive objects consists of first summarizing, then analyzing words and sections of the teaching, and finally concluding the explanation.
5. “The defining characteristic of the nature of awakening factors consists in the apprehension of a referential object together with its aspects, as I have taught, such as the awakening factors, the four applications of mindfulness, and so on.
6. “The defining characteristic of their result is the accomplishment of their result, the mundane and supramundane positive qualities, by abandoning the defilements associated with the mundane or the supramundane phenomena.
7. “The defining characteristic of accounts telling how one experiences them as one proclaims them, explains them, and correctly teach them to others is the analytical knowledge of the gnosis359 that liberates within true reality.
8. “The defining characteristic of the factors disrupting them is the afflicted phenomenon in the form of an obstacle to the practice of these very awakening factors. [F.53.a]
9. “The defining characteristic of the factors conducive to them is the phenomenon useful to [enhancing] them.
10.” The defining characteristic of defects related to them is the fault interrupting them.
11. “Mañjuśrī, you should know that the defining characteristic of their benefit consists in their corresponding positive qualities.”
Then, the bodhisattva Mañjuśrī further said to the Blessed One, “Blessed One, please explain the meaning of the formula through which bodhisattvas comply with the underlying intention360 of the profound Dharma expounded by the tathāgatas, the complete meaning of the sūtras, the Vinaya, and the mātṛkās that is not known by those not following you.”
“Mañjuśrī, listen. I will explain to you the complete meaning of the formula so that bodhisattvas will in this way understand my underlying intention. Mañjuśrī, the possessors of qualities resulting from affliction and purification361 are all without movement and without a person. This is why I taught that all phenomena are in every respect beyond activity. It is not the case that the possessors of qualities resulting from affliction first became afflicted and will then become purified from these afflictions or that the possessors of qualities resulting from purification have become purified from afflictions they previously acquired. Thus, foolish ordinary beings rely on views resulting from their latent dispositions, on account of which they wrongly conceive the body afflicted by corruption as the essence of phenomena and persons. As a consequence, reifying [the ego through concepts such as] ‘I’ and ‘mine,’ they mistakenly conceive of the following notions: ‘I see,’ ‘I hear,’ ‘I smell,’ ‘I taste,’ ‘I touch,’ ‘I am conscious,’ ‘I eat,’ ‘I do,’ ‘I am afflicted,’ and ‘I am purified.’ [F.53.b]
“Thus, those who understand this fact as it really is abandon the body afflicted by corruption and instead obtain the body that is not a support for any defilement, being pure, free from mental elaborations, unconditioned, and unproduced by intentional action. Mañjuśrī, you should know that this is the complete meaning of the formula.”
Then, at that moment, the Blessed One spoke these verses:
“Blessed One, how should we know the defining characteristic of the arising of the tathāgatas’ mind?”
“Mañjuśrī, tathāgatas are not characterized by mind, thought, or cognition.364 However, you should know that, similar to an emanation,365 the tathāgatas’ mind arises in the way of something that is not produced by intentional action.”
“Blessed One, if the truth body of the tathāgatas is not produced at all by intentional action, how then could their mind arise without being produced by intentional action?”366
“Mañjuśrī, their mind arises on account of a previous intentional action, namely, the practice of skillful means and wisdom. Mañjuśrī, it is like this: although awakening from a state of sleep in which there is no thought ensues [spontaneously] without resulting from intentional action, [F.54.a] one will awaken due to previous intentional actions. Although the emergence from the absorption in the state of cessation is not produced by intentional action, one will emerge from it merely due to previous intentional actions. Just as the mind arises from a state of sleep or from the absorption in the state of cessation, you should know that the tathāgatas’ mind also arises due to previous intentional actions such as the practice of skillful means and wisdom.”
“Blessed One, should we say that the mind emanated by tathāgatas exists or not?”
“Mañjuśrī, [their] mind neither exists nor does not exist, because it is causally independent and causally dependent.”367
“Blessed One, what is the sphere of activity of the tathāgatas? What is the domain368 of the tathāgatas? Should we consider these two as distinct?”
“Mañjuśrī, the sphere of activity of the tathāgatas consists in the pure buddha realms, the arrayed ornaments of inconceivable and boundless positive qualities common to all tathāgatas. The domain of the tathāgatas comprises five domains: the domain of the surrounding universe, the domain of beings, the domain of Dharma, the domain of discipline, and the domain of methods of discipline.369 There is a distinction between the two.”
“Blessed One, how should we understand the defining characteristic of the tathāgatas’ complete and perfect awakening, of their turning of the wheel of Dharma, and of their great parinirvāṇa?”
“Mañjuśrī, the tathāgatas are characterized by nonduality.370 They are neither completely and perfectly awakened nor not completely and perfectly awakened; [F.54.b] they neither turn the wheel of Dharma nor do not turn the wheel of Dharma; they neither [attain] the great parinirvāṇa nor do not attain the great parinirvāṇa. This is because the truth body is utterly pure and the emanation body constantly manifests.”
“Blessed One, why should we consider that the merit produced by beings on account of seeing, hearing, or serving the tathāgatas’ emanation body arises from the tathāgatas?”
“Mañjuśrī, it is because these activities consist in taking a superior referential object thanks to the tathāgatas, and also because the emanation body is the tathāgatas’ sovereign power.”
“Blessed One, since this does not seem to be produced by intentional action, why is it that the great light of gnosis manifests in beings solely through the truth body of the tathāgatas and that innumerable emanated reflections also manifest [as the tathāgatas’ emanation body], while this light and its reflections do not manifest from the hearers’ and solitary realizers’ liberation body?”
“Mañjuśrī, while this does not seem to be produced by intentional action, on account of the power of very strong beings and the force of beings’ karma, a great light manifests to beings from water and fire crystals produced from the disks of the moon and sun. However, it does not manifest from water and fire crystals produced from other sources. From a precious gem that has been well polished through [intentional] action, reflections corresponding to its engraving manifest [when it is placed before a light source]. However, they do not manifest from another unpolished gem. Likewise, because the truth body of the tathāgatas also is established by having been purified through the practice of skillful means and insight focusing on the immeasurable domain of truth, [F.55.a] the great light of gnosis manifests in beings, and innumerable emanated reflections arise. However, they do not manifest from the hearers’ and solitary realizers’ liberation body.”
“Blessed One, you said that, through the force of the tathāgatas’ and bodhisattvas’ sovereign power, one can obtain an excellent body in the realm of desire, such as that of a warrior or a brahman, a body that is like a great sāla tree, or the excellent body of a god residing in the realm of desire, the realm of form, or the realm of the formless. Blessed One, what was your underlying intention with regard to this?”
“Mañjuśrī, by means of their sovereign power, tathāgatas teach as they are the path and practices through which one obtains all these excellent bodies. Those accomplishing these path and practices will always obtain all these perfect bodies, while those who reject or denigrate these path and practices, as well as those who have animosity or resentment toward them, will always obtain all kinds of miserable bodies upon their death. Mañjuśrī, on account of this skillful means, you should know in this way that, because of the sovereign power of the tathāgatas, one will be reborn in a perfect body as well as in a miserable one.”
“Blessed One, in the universes that are impure and pure, what is abundant? What is rare?”
“Mañjuśrī, in the universes that are impure, [F.55.b] eight things are abundant and two are rare. Abundant are (1) followers of traditions other than mine; (2) suffering beings; (3) beings who are different in terms of lineages, families, and communities or wealth and poverty; (4) beings engaging into wrongdoing; (5) beings who have lost their discipline; (6) beings in bad destinies; (7) followers of inferior vehicles; and (8) bodhisattvas with inferior intentions and practices. Rare are (1) the actions of bodhisattvas having superior intentions and practices and (2) the manifestation of tathāgatas.
“Mañjuśrī, in the universes that are pure, it is the opposite of this. You should know that these eight things are rare and these two things abundant.”
Then, the bodhisattva Mañjuśrī asked the Blessed One, “Blessed One, what is the name of the teaching imparted in this Dharma discourse that unravels the Tathāgata’s intent? How should I keep it in mind?”
The Blessed One answered, “Mañjuśrī, this is a teaching of definitive meaning establishing the deeds of the tathāgatas. Keep it in mind as The Teaching of Definitive Meaning Establishing the Deeds of the Tathāgatas. As the Blessed One expounded this teaching, seventy-five thousand bodhisattvas obtained the perfect analytical knowledge of the truth body.
After the Blessed One had spoken these words, the prince Mañjuśrī together with the entire retinue of gods, humans, demigods, and gandharvas rejoiced and praised the words of the Blessed One.
The [tenth chapter of the bodhisattva Mañjuśrī] called “The Chapter Establishing the Positive Qualities [of the Tathāgatas]” of [the sūtra of] the Great Vehicle called “Unraveling the Intent” is concluded.
|Bd||Bardan (Zanskar) canonical collection|
|C||Choné xylograph Kangyur|
|Cbeta||Chinese Electronic Buddhist Association, (www.cbeta.org)|
|D||Degé xylograph Kangyur|
|Do||Dolpo canonical collection|
|F||Phukdrak manuscript Kangyur|
|Go||Gondhla (Lahaul) canonical collection|
|H||Lhasa xylograph Kangyur|
|He||Hemis I Kangyur|
|J||’jang sa tham/Lithang xylograph Kangyur|
|Kʙ||Berlin manuscript Kangyur|
|Kǫ774||Peking 1737 xylograph Kangyur|
|L||London (Shelkar) manuscript Kangyur|
|Lg||Lang mdo Kangyur|
|N||Narthang xylograph Kangyur|
|Pj||Phajoding I Kangyur|
|Pz||Phajoding II Kangyur|
|S||Stok manuscript Kangyur|
|Saṃdhdh||Dunhuang manuscript: Stein Tib. n°194 (49 folios) and Stein Tib. n°683 (1 folio) (Hakamaya 1984–1987)|
|T||Tokyo manuscript Kangyur|
|Taishō 676||解深密經, translated by Xuanzang (596–664 ᴄᴇ)|
|U||Urga xylograph Kangyur|
|V||Ulaanbaatar manuscript Kangyur|
|VD||Degé; xylograph of the Viniścayasaṃgrahaṇī of the Yogācārabhūmi from the Tengyur|
|VG||Golden; xylograph of the Viniścayasaṃgrahaṇī of the Yogācārabhūmi from the Tengyur|
|VP||Peking; xylograph of the Viniścayasaṃgrahaṇī of the Yogācārabhūmi from the Tengyur|
|VinSg||Viniścayasaṃgrahaṇī of the Yogācārabhūmi|
|X||Basgo manuscript Kangyur|
|YBht P ’i||Tibetan translation of Acarya Asanga’s Yogācārabhūmi from the Peking Tengyur (n°. 5540, sems-tsam, ’i 143aI-382a5 (vol. I l l : 121-217)|
|Z||Shey Palace manuscript Kangyur|
’phags pa dgongs pa nges par ’grel pa zhes bya ba theg pa chen po’i mdo (Āryasaṃdhinirmocananāmamahāyānasūtra). Toh 106, Degé Kangyur vol. 49 (mdo sde, ca) folios 1.b–55.b.
’phags pa dgongs pa nges par ’grel pa zhes bya ba theg pa chen po’i mdo. bka’ ’gyur (dpe bsdur ma) [Comparative Edition of the Kangyur], krung go’i bod rig pa zhib ’jug ste gnas kyi bka’ bstan dpe sdur khang (The Tibetan Tripitaka Collation Bureau of the China Tibetology Research Center). 108 volumes. Beijing: krung go’i bod rig pa dpe skrun khang (China Tibetology Publishing House), 2006–9, vol. 49, pp. 3–131.
Asaṅga. rnal ’byor spyod pa’i sa (Yogācārabhūmi). Toh 4035, Degé Tengyur vol. 127 (sems tsam, tshi) folios 1.b–283.a
Asaṅga. rnal ’byor spyod pa’i sa rnam par gtan la dbab pa bsdu ba (Yogācārabhūmiviniścayasaṃgraha). Toh 4038, Degé Tengyur vol. 130 (sems tsam, zhi), folios 1.b–289.a; vol. 131 (sems tsam, zi), folios 1.b–127.a.
Buddhabhūmisūtra (sangs rgyas kyi sa’i mdo). Toh 275, Degé Kangyur vol. 68 (mdo sde, ya), folios 36.a–44.b.
Kamalaśila. bsgom pa’i rim pa (Bhāvanākrama). Toh 3915, Degé Tengyur vol. 110 (dbu ma, ki), folios 22.a–41.b; Toh 3916, Degé Tengyur vol. 110 (dbu ma, ki), folios 42.a–55.b; and Toh 3917, Degé Tengyur vol. 110 (dbu ma, ki), folios 55.b–68.b.
Mahāvyutpatti (bye brag tu rtogs par byed pa chen po). Toh 4346, Degé Tengyur vol. 204 (sna tshogs, co), folios 1.b–131.a.
Māyājāla (mdo chen sgyu ma’i dra ba). Toh 288, Degé Kangyur vol. 71 (mdo sde, sha), folios 230.a–244.a.
Tathāgataguṇajñānācintyaviṣayāvatāranirdeśasūtra (de bzhin gshegs pa’i yon tan dang ye shes bsam gyis mi khyab pa’i yul la ’jug pa bstan pa’i mdo). Toh 185, Degé Kangyur vol. 61 (mdo sde, tsa), folios 106.a–143.b.
Trisong Detsen (khri srong lde brtsan). bka’ yang dag pa’i tshad ma las mdo btus pa (Samyagvākpramāṇoddhṛtasūtra). Toh 4352, Degé Tengyur vol. 204 (sna tshogs, co), folios 173.b–203.a.
Vasubandhu. dbus dang mtha’ rnam par ’byed pa’i ’grel pa (Madhyāntavibhāgabhāṣya). Toh 4027, Degé Tengyur vol. 124 (sems tsam, bi), folios 1.b–27.a.
Wonch’uk. dgongs pa zab mo nges par ’grel pa’i mdo rgya cher ’grel pa (*Āryagambhīrasaṃdhinirmocanasūtraṭīkā) Toh 4016, Degé Tengyur vol. 118 (mdo ’grel, ti), folios 1.b–291.a; vol. 119 (mdo ’grel, thi), folios 1.b–175.a.
IOL Tib J 194. British Library, London. Accessed through The International Dunhuang Project: The Silk Road Online.
Other Canonical Sources for Samdh.
Bd3.7 vol. 3 (ta) pha, folios 1.b–84.a
C747 vol. 29 (mdo sde, ca), folios 1.b–71.a
Dd031-001 (mdo ca), folios 1.b–69.b
Dk034-001 (mdo na), folios 1.b–87.b
Do (mdo sde, da), folios 196.a–246.b
F156 vol. 68 (mdo sde, tsha), folios 1.b–72.a
Go19,01 vol. 19 (ka), folios 1.b–36.a
Gt028-001 (mdo na), folios 1.b–72.b
H109 vol. 51 (mdo sde, ca), folios 1.b–87.b
He64.6 (mdo, wa), folios 62.b–125.b
J51 vol. 44 (mdo sde, ca), folios 1.b–59.b
Kǫ774 vol. 29 (mdo sna tshogs, ngu), folios 1.b–60.b
L82 vol. 42 (mdo sde, na), folios 1.b–80.b
N94 vol. 51 (mdo sde, ca) folios 1.a–81.a.
Np012-001 (mdo na), folios 1.b–87.a
Pj043-001 (mdo ca), folios 1.b–62.b
Pz045-001 (mdo ca), folios 1.b–61.a
R106 vol. 49 (mdo sde, ca), folios 1.b–55.b
S106 vol. 63 (mdo sde, na), folios 1.b–80.b
U106 vol. 49 (mdo sde, ca), folios 1.b–55.b
X (mdo sde, wa), folios 66.a–132.a
Z137 vol. 59 (mdo, na), folios 1.b–93.a
Bhattacharya, Ramkrishna. “Uttarakuru: The (E)utopia of Ancient India.” Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute 81, no. 1/4 (2000): 191–201.
Billeter, Jean-François. Trois essais sur la traduction. Paris: Allia, 2014.
Braarvig, Jens. “Dhāraṇī and Pratibhāna: Memory and Eloquence of the Bodhisattvas.” Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies 8, no. 1 (1985): 17–30.
Brunnhölzl, Karl. A Compendium of the Mahāyāna: Asaṅga’s “Mahāyānasaṃgraha” and Its Indian and Tibetan Commentaries. 3 vols. Boulder: Shambhala, 2018.
Buescher, Hartmut (2007). Sthiramati’s Triṃśikāvijñaptibhāṣya: Critical Editions of the Sanskrit Text and its Tibetan Translation. Vienna: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenachaften, 2007.
——— (2008). The Inception of Yogācāra-Vijñānavāda. Vienna: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 2008.
Buswell, Robert E., Donald S. Lopez, and Juhn Ahn. The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism. Princeton University Press, 2014.
Chayet, Anne. “Pour servir à la numérisation des manuscrits tibétains de Dunhuang conservés à la Bibliothèque Nationale : un fichier de Jacques Bacot et autres documents.” Revue d’Etudes Tibétaines 9 (2005): 4–107.
Cleary, Thomas F. Buddhist Yoga: A Comprehensive Course. Boston: Shambhala, 1999.
Conze, Edward. The Large Sutra on Perfect Wisdom: With the Divisions of the Abhisamayālaṅkāra. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1975.
Cornu, Philippe. Soûtra du dévoilement du sens profond. Paris: Fayard, 2005.
Rhys Davids, T. W., and William Stede. The Pali Text Society’s Pali-English Dictionary. Chipstead: The Pali Text Society, 1921.
Dayal, Har. The Bodhisattva Doctrine in Buddhist Sanskrit Literature. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 2004.
Delhey, Martin. “The Yogācārabhūmi Corpus: Sources, Editions, Translations, and Reference Works.” In The Foundation for Yoga Practitioners. The Buddhist Yogācārabhūmi Treatise and Its Adaptation in India, East Asia, and Tibet, edited by Ulrich Timme Krag, 498–561. Harvard Oriental Series 75. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2013.
Eckel, Malcolm David. To See the Buddha: A Philosopher’s Quest for the Meaning of Emptiness. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1994.
Edgerton, Franklin (1937). “Buddhist Sanskrit saṃdha, saṃdhi(-nirmocana).” Journal of the American Oriental Society 5, vol. 2 (1937): 185–88.
——— (1953). Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary. Vol. 2, Dictionary. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1953.
Fiordalis, David V. “The Wondrous Display of Superhuman Power in the Vimalakīrtinirdeśa: Miracle or Marvel?” In Yoga Powers: Extraordinary Capacities Attained Through Meditation and Concentration, edited by Knut Axel Jacobsen, 96–125. Leiden: Brill, 2012.
Frauwallner, Erich. Die Philosophie des Buddhismus. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, 1969.
Gómez, Luis O. “On Buddhist wonders and wonder-working.” Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies 33, no. 1–2 (2011): 513–54.
Hall, Bruce Cameron. “The Meaning of Vijñapti in Vasubandhu’s Concept of Mind.” Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies 9, no. 1 (1986): 7–23.
Hakayama, Noriaki (1984). “The Old and New Tibetan Translationsof the Saṃdhinirmocana-sūtra: Some Notes on the History of Early Tibetan Translation.” In Komazawa daigaku bukkyōgakubu kenkyū kiyō 42, 192–176, 1984.
———(1986). “A Comparative Edition of the Old and New Tibetan Translations of the Saṃdhinirmocanasūtra (I).” In Komazawa daigaku bukkyōgakubu ronshū 17, 616(1)–600(17), 1986.
———(1987a). “A Comparative Edition of the Old and New Tibetan Translations of the Saṃdhinirmocana-sūtra (II).” In Komazawa daigaku bukkyōgakubu kenkyū kiyō 45, 354(1)–320(35), 1987.
———(1987b). “A Comparative Edition of the Old and New Tibetan Translations of the Saṃdhinirmocana-sūtra (III).” In Komazawa daigaku bukkyōgakubu ronshū 18, 606(1)–572(35), 1986.
Hopkins, Jeffrey (1999). Emptiness in the Mind-Only School of Buddhism. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999.
———(2002). Reflections on Reality: The Three Natures and Non-Natures in the Mind-Only School. Dynamic Responses to D̄zong-ka-b̄a’s “The Essence of Eloquence” 2. London: University of California Press, 2002.
———(2006). Absorption in No External World: 170 Issues in Mind Only Buddhism. Dynamic Responses to D̄zong-ka-b̄a’s “The Essence of Eloquence” 3. Ithaca: Snow Lion, 2006.
Kapstein, Matthew (1988). “Mi-pham’s Theory of Interpretation.” In Buddhist Hermeneutics edited by Donald Lopez. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 1988: 149–174
———. Reason’s Traces: Identity and Interpretation in Indian and Tibetan Buddhist Thought. Boston: Wisdom Publications, 2001.
Katō, Kojirō (2002). “Pratibimba in the Context of Vijñaptimātra Theory: A Comparative Study of the Śrāvakabhūmi and the Sandhinirmocanasūtra (Chap. VI).” In Studies in Indian Philosophy and Buddhism, 53–65. Tokyo: Tokyo University, 2002.
———(2004). “On the Terms vijñaptimatratā and vijñaptitathatā as Found in the Sandhinirmocanasūtra.” Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies (=Indobukkyogaku Kenkyu) 52, no. 2 (2004): 38–40.
———(2006). “On the Tibetan Text of the Saṃdhinirmocanasūtra: Towards a Comparative Study of Manuscripts and Editions which belong to the East and West Recensions.” Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies (=Indobukkyogaku Kenkyu) 54, no. 3 (2006): 1205–11.
———(2011). “On the Two Different Interpretations of paramārthaniḥsvabhāva in the Saṃdhinirmocanasūtra 7.6.” Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies (=Indobukkyogaku Kenkyu) 59, no. 2 (2011): 976–81.
———(forthcoming). Critical edition of the Sandhinirmocanasūtra. PhD diss., University of Tokyo.
Kawasaki, Shinjo. “Analysis of yoga in the Sandhinirmocanasūtra.” Buzan Gakuho 21 (1976): 170–156.
Keenan, John Peter (1980). “A Study of the Buddhabhūmyupadeśa: The Doctrinal Development of the Notion of Wisdom in Yogācāra Thought.” PhD diss., University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1980.
——— (2000). The Scripture on the Explication of Underlying Meaning: Translated from the Chinese of Hsüan-tsang. BDK English Tripiṭaka 25-4. Berkeley: Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research, 2000.
Kritzer, Robert. “Rūpa and the Antarābhava.” Journal of Indian Philosophy 29 (2000): 235–72.
Lamotte, Étienne (1935). Saṃdhinirmocana sūtra: l’explication des mystères. Louvain: Bureaux du recueil, Bibliothèque de l’Universit́e, 1935.
———(1973). La somme du grand véhicule d’Asaṅga: Mahāyānasaṃgraha. Louvain: Université de Louvain, Institut orientaliste, 1973.
———(1970). Le traité de la grande vertu de sagesse de Nāgārjuna, Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra. Louvain: Université de Louvain, Institut orientaliste, 1970.
La Vallée Poussin, Louis de (1925). L’Abhidharmakośa de Vasubandhu. Paris: P. Geuthner, 1925.
———(1934–35). “Notes Bouddhiques：XX. Les Trois ‘Caractères’ et les trois ‘Absences de Nature Propre’ dans le Samdhinirmocana, Chapitres VI et VII.” Bulletin de la Classe des Lettres et des Sciences Morales et Politiques, Académie Royale de Belgique (1934–35): 284–303.
Lévi, Sylvain. Vijñaptimātratāsiddhi: deux traités de Vasubandhu : Viṁśatikā (La vingtaine) accompagnée d’une explication en prose, et Triṁśikā (La trentaine) avec le commentaire de Sthiramati. Paris: H. Champion, 1925.
Lin, Chen Kuo (1991). The Saṃdhinirmocana Sūtra: A Liberating Hermeneutic. PhD diss., Temple University, 1991.
———(2010). “Truth and method in the Saṃdhinirmocana Sūtra.” Journal of Chinese Philosophy 37 (2010): 261–75.
Lusthaus, Dan. Buddhist Phenomenology: A Philosophical Investigation of Yogācāra Buddhism and the “Ch’eng Wei-shih lun.” London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2002.
Mathes, Klaus-Dieter. “The Ontological Status of the Dependent (paratantra) in the Saṃdhinirmocanasūtra and the Vyākhyāyukti.” In Indica et Tibetica: Festschrift für Michael Hahn, edited by Konrad Klaus and Jens-Uwe Hartmann, 323–39. Vienna: Arbeitskreis für Tibetische und Buddhistische Studien Universität Wien, 2007.
Matsuda, Kazunobu (1995). “Sanskrit Text of the Bodhisattva’s Ten Stages in the Saṃdhinirmocanasūtra: Based on the Kathmandu Fragment of the Yogācārabhūmi.” Bulletin of the Research Institute of Bukkyō University 2 (1995): 59–77.
———(2013). “Sanskrit Fragments of the Saṃdhinirmocanasūtra.” In The Foundation for Yoga Practitioners: The Buddhist Yogācārabhūmi Treatise and Its Adaptation in India, East Asia, and Tibet, edited by Ulrich Timme Krag, 772–90. Harvard Oriental Series 75. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2013.
Muller, Charles A. “Woncheuk 圓測 on Bimba 本質 and Pratibimba 影像 in his Commentary on the Saṃdhinirmocana-sūtra.” Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies 59, no. 3 (2011): 1272–80.
Nagao, Gadjin. Madhyāntavibhāga‐bhāṣya: a Buddhist Philosophical Treatise Edited for the First Time from a Sanskrit Manuscript. Tokyo: Suzuki Research Foundation. 1964.
Nance, Richard F. Speaking for Buddhas: Scriptural Commentary in Indian Buddhism. New York: Columbia University Press, 2012.
Obermiller, Eugéne. Analysis of the Abhisamayālaṃkāra. London: Luzac, 1933.
Powers, John (1991a). “The Term ‘Saṃdhinirmocana’ in the Title of the Saṃdhinirmocana-sūtra.” Studies in Central and East Asian Religions 4 (1991): 52–62.
———(1991b). “The Concept of the Ultimate (don dam pa, paramārtha) in the Sandhinirmocanasūtra.” Indian Journal of Buddhist Studies 3, no. 1 (1991): 1–24.
———(1991c). “The Concept of the Ultimate (don dam pa, paramārtha) in the Sandhinirmocana-Sūtra: Analysis, translation, and notes.” PhD diss., University of Virginia, 1991.
———(1992a). “Lost in China, Found in Tibet: How Wonch’uk Became the Author of the Great Chinese Commentary.” In Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies 15, no. 1 (1992): 95–103.
———(1992b). Two Commentaries on the Samdhinirmocana-Sutra by Asanga and Jnanagarbha. Studies in Asian Thought and Religion 13. Lewiston: Edwin Mellen Press, 1992.
———(1993a). “The Tibetan Translations of the Saṃdhinirmocanasūtra and Bka’ ’gyur Research.” Central Asiatic Journal 37, no. 3/4 (1993): 198–224.
———(1993b). Hermeneutics and Tradition in the Sandhinirmocana-sūtra. Leiden: Brill, 1993.
———(1995). Wisdom of Buddha: The Saṁdhinirmocana Sūtra. Tibetan Translation Series 16. Berkeley: Dharma Publishing, 1995.
———(1998). Jñānagarbha’s Commentary on Just the Maitreya Chapter from the Saṃdhinirmocana-Sūtra: Study, Translation and Tibetan Text. New Delhi: Indian Council of Philosophical Research, 1998.
———(2015). “Saṃdhinirmocanasūtra.”In Brill’s Encyclopedia of Buddhism, edited by Jonathan Silk et al., vol. 1, Literature and Languages, 240–48. Leiden: Brill, 2015.
Punnaji, Hingulwala. “A Study of the Practice of Recollections (Anussati) in Buddhist Meditation.” PhD diss., Huafan University.
Radich, Michael. “The Somatics of Liberation: Ideas about Embodiment in Buddhism from Its Origins to the Fifth Century C.E.” PhD Diss., Harvard University: 2007.
Rahula, Walpola. Abhidharmasamuccaya: The Compendium of Higher Teaching (philosophy) by Asanga. Fremont: Asian Humanities Press, 2001.
Sakuma, Hidenori S. Die āśrayaparivṛtti-Theorie in der Yogācārabhūmi. 2 vols. Stuttgart: Steiner, 1990.
Schmithausen, Lambert (1984). “On the Vijñaptimātra Passage in Saṁdhinirmocanasūtra VIII.7.” Acta Indologica 6 (1984): 433–55.
———(1987). Ālayavijñāna: On the Origin and the Early Development of a Central Concept of Yogācāra Philosophy. Tokyo: International Institute for Buddhist Studies, 1987.
———(2005). On the Problem of the External World in the “Ch’eng wei shih lun.” Studia Philologica Buddhica. Tokyo: The International Institute for Buddhist Studies, 2005.
———(2014). The Genesis of Yogācāra-Vijñānavāda: Responses and Reflections. Kasuga Lectures Series 1. Tokyo: The International Institute for Buddhist Studies, 2014.
Skilling, Peter (1994). “Kanjur Titles and Colophons.” In Tibetan Studies: Proceedings of the 6th Seminar of the International Association for Tibetan Studies, Fagernes 1992, edited by Per Kvaerne, 2:768–80. Oslo: The Institute for Comparative Research in Human Culture, 1994.
——— (2013). “Nets of Intertextuality: Embedded Scriptural Citations in the Yogācārabhūmi.” In The Foundation for Yoga Practitioners: The Buddhist “Yogācārabhūmi” Treatise and Its Adaptation in India, East Asia, and Tibet, edited by Ulrich Timme Kragh, 772–90. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2013.
Steinkellner, Ernst. “Who is Byaṅ chub rdzu ’phrul? Tibetan and non-Tibetan Commentaries on the Saṃdhinirmocanasūtra – A Survey of the Literature.” Berliner Indologische Studien 4/5 (1989): 229–52.
Takahashi, Kōichi. “A Premise of the trilakṣaṇa theory in the Sandhinirmocanasūtra.” In Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies (=Indobukkyogaku Kenkyu) 54, no. 3 (2006): 85–92.
Takasaki, Jikido. A Study on the Ratnagotravibhāga (Uttaratantra): Being a Treatise on the Tathāgatagarbha Theory of Mahāyāna Buddhism. Serie Orientale Roma 32. Roma: Istituto italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente, 1966.
Tillemans, Tom J. F. “On a recent translation of the Saṃdhinirmocanasūtra.” In Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies 20, no. 1 (1997): 153–64.
Tucci, Giuseppe. Minor Buddhist Texts Part III: Third Bhāvanākrama. Serie Orientale Roma 43. Roma: Istituto italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente, 1971.
Vinay, Jean-Paul, and Jean Darbelnet. Comparative Stylistics of French and English: A Methodology for Translation. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 1958.
Waldron, William S. The Buddhist Unconscious: The ālaya-vijñāna in the context of Indian Buddhist Thought. London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003.
Ware, James. Review of Saṃdhinirmocanasūtra, l’explication des mystères, by Étienne Lamotte. Journal of the American Oriental Society 57, no. 1 (1937): 122–24.
Wayman, Alex. “The Mirror as a Pan-Buddhist Metaphor-Simile.” History of Religions 13, no. 4 (1974): 251–69.
Wedemeyer, Christian K. “Review of Jñānagarbha’s Commentary on Just the Maitreya Chapter from the Saṃdhinirmocanasūtra: Study, Translation and Tibetan Text, by John Powers.” Journal of the American Oriental Society 123, no. 3 (2003): 681–84.
Xing, Guang. The Concept of the Buddha: Its evolution from early Buddhism to the “trikāya” theory. RoutledgeCurzon Critical Studies in Buddhism. London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2005.
Yoshimizu, Chizuko (1996). “On the Four Kinds of yukti in the Tenth Chapter of the Saṃdhinirmocanasūtra.” Journal of Naritasan Institute for Buddhist Studies 19 (1996): 123–68.
———(2010). “The Logic of the Sandhinirmocanasūtra: Establishing Right Reasoning Based on Similarity (sārūpya) and Dissimilarity (vairūpya).” In Logic in Earliest Classical India, edited by Brendan S. Gillon, 139–66. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 2010.