84000 Glossary of Terms

Our trilingual glossary combining entries from all of our publications into one useful resource, giving translations and definitions of thousands of terms, people, places, and texts from the Buddhist canon.

བདུད་ཀྱི་རིས་ཀྱི་ལྷ། | Glossary of Terms


    bdud kyi ris kyi lha


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The deities ruled over by Māra. The term can also refer to the devas in his paradise, which is sometimes identified with Paranirmitavaśavartin, the highest paradise in the realm of desire. This is distinct from the four personifications of obstacles to awakening, also known as the four māras (devaputramāra, mṛtyumāra, skandhamāra, and kleśamāra).